The International Dimension

  • David Pretel
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Economic History book series (PEHS)


Spain occupied a peripheral position in the globalising Atlantic world economy of the nineteenth century, as evidenced by the way it integrated into the international patent system. Two features characterised the relationship of the Spanish patent system with the broader global dynamics of the time: first, its openness to foreign patenting and strong institutional dependency and, second, the prevalence of transfer agents who facilitated the transmission of knowledge and information to Spain. This analysis of the international dimension of the system concludes with the case study of Julio Vizcarrondo and the Elzaburu agency, the pioneer professional patent business in Spain that assisted foreign inventors and companies.


International patent system Foreign patenting Transfer agents Julio Vizcarrondo 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Pretel
    • 1
  1. 1.El Colegio de Mexico (COLMEX)Mexico CityMexico

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