Gallstone Ileus

  • Chris DodgionEmail author
  • Marc de Moya


Gallstone ileus is a mechanical obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract caused by gallstones that enter the alimentary tract via a cholecystoenteric fistula. It occurs in less than 1% of bowel obstructions and 0.3% of patients with cholelithiasis. There is an increased rate of diagnosis in the elderly, >65 years old, with female predominance (3:1). Presentation is often delayed due to intermittent symptoms. Abdominal CT scan has supplanted both abdominal X-rays and ultrasound as the most sensitive diagnostic test of choice. While cases have been reported of successful lithotripsy with endoscopic retrieval, surgical intervention is still the gold standard of treatment. Enterolithotomy alone is the most common operation performed due to historically lower rates of mortality and morbidity, but controversy remains regarding the utility of laparoscopic approaches and interventions to address the biliary fistula (131 words).


Gallstone ileus Cholecystoenteric fistula Intestinal obstruction Enterolithotomy 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Trauma/Acute Care SurgeryMedical College of Wisconsin-Froedtert Trauma CenterMilwaukeeUSA

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