Some argue that no major changes are needed to accommodate AI because legal systems can simply be developed by analogy and incremental change. Turner shows that view is mistaken: AI is unlike any other technology or phenomenon that we have faced before. The only entities currently treated as having legal agency are humans. This is because only humans are able to understand legal rules and plan their behaviour accordingly. Other “legal persons” like companies or charities are nothing more than collective fictions. Turner concludes that actions of AI may break the chain of causation which legal systems use to link the actions of a human to an eventual outcome, thereby leading to potential gaps in the law.