Advertisement

The Story of Culture in Psychology and the Return Journey to Normology: Comments on the Global Relevance of Asian Indigenous Psychologies

  • Chi-yue ChiuEmail author
  • Yuan-yuan Shi
  • Letty Y.-Y. Kwan
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Indigenous Psychology book series (PASIP)

Abstract

In this chapter, we use the story of culture in psychological research and a return journey from personology to normology to comment on the global relevance of Asian indigenous psychology (IP). The return journey reveals the inconvenient truth that all theories have their cultural blind spots. Even cultural theories that seek to explain collective phenomena also embody a personological bias. Thus, Asian indigenous theories can have important epistemic functions. These theories may confront the researcher with alternative viewpoints that are grounded in different cultural logics. These alternative viewpoints may destabilize the researcher’s knowledge structure, evoke cognitive dissonance and motivate theoretical innovations. The story of culture in psychology highlights the conditions that must be met for the potential contributions of Asian IPs to be actualized. Three necessary conditions are: (1) a shift in the emphasis from cultures as independent, historically stable entities to cultures in the making, (2) recognition that cultural influence on behaviors are partial, plural, dynamic, intermittent and situated, and (3) an embrace of foreign cultural ideas and practices as precious resources for advancing the psychological science of culture.

References

  1. Bhatia, S., & Priya, K. R. (2018). From representing culture to fostering ‘voice’: Toward a critical indigenous psychology. In K. H. Yeh (Ed.), Asian indigenous psychologies in the global context (Chapter 2, pp. 19–46). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Binnie-Dawson, J. L. M. (1982). A bio-social approach to environmental psychology and problems of stress. International Journal of Psychology, 17, 397–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chao, M. M., Zhang, Z.-X., & Chiu, C.-y. (2010). Adherence to perceived norms across cultural boundaries: The role of need for cognitive closure and ingroup identification. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 69–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheung, F. M., Cheung, S. F., Zhang, J., Leung, K., Leong, F., & Huiyeh, K. (2008). Relevance of openness as a personality dimension in Chinese culture: Aspects of its cultural relevance. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheung, F. M., Leung, K., Fan, R. M., Song, W.-Z., Zhang, J.-X., & Zhang, J.-P. (1996). Development of the Chinese personality assessment inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27, 181–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheung, F. M., Leung, K., Zhang, J.-X., Sun, H.-F., Gan, Y.-Q., Song, W.-Z., et al. (2001). Indigenous Chinese personality constructs: Is the five-factor model complete? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 407–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiu, C.-y. (1991a). Righteousness: The notion of justice in Chinese societies. In C. F. Yang & H. S. R. Kao (Eds.), Chinese people and Chinese psychology: The cultural tradition (Vol. 2, pp. 261–285). Taipei, ROC: Yuen Liao.Google Scholar
  8. Chiu, C.-y. (1991b). Role expectation as the principal criterion used in justice judgment among Hong Kong college students. Journal of Psychology, 125, 557–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiu, C.-y. (1991c). Hierarchical social relations and justice judgment among Hong Kong Chinese college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 131, 885–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiu, C.-y., & Chao, M. M. (2009). Society, culture, and the person: Ways to personalize and socialize cultural psychology. In R. Wyer, C.-y. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 456–466). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  11. Chiu, C.-y., & Cheng, S. Y.-y. (2007). Toward a social psychology of culture and globalization: Some social cognitive consequences of activating two cultures simultaneously. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 84–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiu, C.-y., Dweck, C. S., Tong, Y.-y., & Fu, H.-y. (1997). Implicit theories and conceptions of morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 923–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiu, C.-y., Gelfand, M., Yamagishi, T., Shteynberg, G., & Wan, C. (2010). Intersubjective culture: The role of intersubjective perceptions in cross-cultural research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 482–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiu, C.-y., Gries, P., Torelli, C. J., & Cheng, S. Y.-Y. (2011). Toward a social psychology of globalization. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 663–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chiu, C.-y., & Hong, Y. (1997). Justice from a Chinese perspective. In H. S. R. Kao & D. Sinha (Eds.), Asian perspectives on psychology (pp. 164–184). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Chiu, C.-y., & Hong, Y. (2006). Social psychology of culture. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  17. Chiu, C.-y., & Hong, Y.-y. (2007). Cultural processes: Basic principles. In E. T. Higgins & A. E. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 785–809). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  18. Chiu, C.-y., & Kwan, L. Y.-y. (2016). Globalization and psychology. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 44–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiu, C.-y., Kwan, L. Y.-y., & Liou, S. (2013). Culturally motivated challenges to innovations in integrative research: Theory and solutions. Social Issues and Policy Review, 7, 149–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiu, C.-y., Leung, K.-y., & Hong, Y.-y. (2010). Cultural processes: An overview. In A. K.-y. Leung, C.-y. Chiu, & Y.-y. Hong (Eds.), Cultural processes: A social psychological perspective (pp. 3–22). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Donald, M. (1991). Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C.-y., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Earle, M. J. (1969). A cross-cultural and cross-language comparison of dogmatism scores. Journal of Social Psychology, 79, 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fiske, A. P., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Nisbett, R. E. (1998). The cultural matrix of social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 915–981). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  25. Fu, H.-y., Chiu, C.-y., Morris, M. W., & Young, M. (2007). Spontaneous inferences from cultural cues: Varying responses of cultural insiders and outsiders. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 58–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gergen, K., Sharma, C., Sameshima, T., Wu, S.-J., & Yang, L. (2018). Cultures in motion: Challenges to future inquiry. In K. H. Yeh (Ed.), Asian indigenous psychologies in the global context (Chapter 3, pp. 47–67). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  27. Gervey, B. M., Chiu, C.-y., Hong, Y., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Implicit theories: The impact of person information on decision-making. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ho, D. Y. F., & Chiu, C.-y. (1998). Collective representations as a metaconstruct: An analysis based on methodological relationalism. Culture and Psychology, 4, 349–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hong, Y., & Chiu, C.-y. (2001). Toward a paradigm shift: From cultural differences in social cognition to social cognitive mediation of cultural differences. Social Cognition, 19, 118–196.Google Scholar
  30. Hong, Y.-Y., Chiu, C.-Y., & Kung, T. M. (1997). Bringing culture out in front: Effects of cultural meaning system activation on social cognition. In K. Leung, Y. Kashima, U. Kim, & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Progress in Asian social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 135–146). Singapore: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Hong, Y., Morris, M., Chiu, C.-y., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kreuzbauer, R., Chiu, C.-y., Bae, S. H., & Lin, S. (2014). When does life satisfaction accompany relational identity signaling: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 646–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kwan, L. Y.-y. (2016). Anger and perception of unfairness and harm: Cultural differences in normative processes that justify sanction assignment. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kwan, L. Y.-y., & Chiu, C.-y. (2016). Representations of others influence behaviors: Are you traveling alone or with others. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, Santa Monica, CA. October 12–14.Google Scholar
  35. Kwan, L. Y.-y., Chiu, C.-y., & Leung, A. K.-y. (2014). Priming Bush (vs. Obama) increases liking of American brands: The role of intersubjectively important values. Social Influence, 9, 206–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kwan, L. Y.-y., Yap, S., & Chiu, C.-y. (2015). Mere exposure affects perceived descriptive norms: Implications for personal preferences and trust. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lau, I. Y.-M., Chiu, C.-y., & Hong, Y. (2001a). I know what you know: Assumptions about others’ knowledge and their effects on message construction. Social Cognition, 19, 587–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lau, I. Y.-M., Chiu, C.-y., & Lee, S.-L. (2001b). Communication and shared reality: Implications for the psychological foundations of culture. Social Cognition, 19, 350–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leung, A. K.-Y., Au, E. W. M., & Chiu, C.-y. (2014). Conformist opinion shift as an accommodation-motivated cognitive experience in strong and weak situations. Social Cognition, 32, 48–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leung, A. K.-y., & Chiu, C.-y. (2008). Interactive effects of multicultural experiences and openness to experience on creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 376–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leung, A. K.-y., & Chiu, C.-y. (2010). Multicultural experiences, idea receptiveness, and creativity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 723–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leung, A. K.-Y., Lee, S.-l., & Chiu, C.-y. (2013). Meta-knowledge of culture promotes cultural competence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 992–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leung, A. K.-y., Maddux, W. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Chiu, C.-y. (2008). Multicultural experience enhances creativity: The when and how? American Psychologist, 63, 169–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lonner, W. (2013). Chronological benchmarks in cross-cultural psychology. Foreword to the encyclopedia of cross-cultural psychology. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 1(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1124.
  45. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Metcalfe, J., & Michel, M. (1999). A hot/cool-system analysis of delay of gratification: Dynamics of willpower. Psychological Review, 106, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morris, M. W., Chiu, C.-y., & Liu, Z. (2015). Polycultural psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 631–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morris, M. W., Hong, Y.-y, Chiu, C.-y., & Liu, Z. (2015). Normology: Integrating insights about social norms to understand cultural dynamics. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108, 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oishi, S., & Graham, J. (2010). Social ecology: Lost and found in psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 356–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pandey, J., Sinha, D., & Bhawal, D. P. S. (1996). Asian contributions to cross-cultural psychology. London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Peng, K., & Nisbett, R. E. (1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction. American Psychologist, 54, 741–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Savani, K., Wadhwa, M., Uchida, Y., Ding, Y., & Naidu, N. V. R. (2015). When norms loom larger than the self: Susceptibility of preference–choice consistency to normative influence across cultures. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 70–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schwartz, S. H. (2009). Culture matters: National value cultures, sources, and consequences. In R. S. Wyer, C.-Y. Chiu, & Y.-Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 127–150). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  55. Segall, M. H. (1979). Cross-cultural psychology: Human behavior in global perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  56. Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovit, M. (1966). Influence of culture on visual perception. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merill Company.Google Scholar
  57. Segall, M., Lonner, W., & Berry, J. (1998). Cross-cultural psychology as a scholarly discipline: On the flowering of culture in behavioral research. American Psychologist, 53, 1101–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shi, Y. (2016). Authenticity and tactic: A revisit to modesty. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing.Google Scholar
  59. Su, J. C., Chiu, C.-y., Lin, W.-F., & Oishi, S. (2016). Social monitoring matters for deterring social deviance in stable but not mobile socio-ecological contexts. PLoS One, 11, e0167053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tomasello, M. (2001). Cultural transmission: A view from chimpanzees and human infants. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Torelli, C. J., Chiu, C.-y., Tam, K.-P., Au, A. K. C., & Keh, H. T. (2011). Exclusionary reactions to foreign cultures: Effects of simultaneous exposure to cultures in globalized space. Journal of Social Issues, 67, 716–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wan, C., Chiu, C.-y., Peng, S., & Tam, K.-p. (2007a). Measuring cultures through intersubjective norms: Implications for predicting relative identification with two or more cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wan, C., Chiu, C.-y., Tam, K.-p., Lee, S.-l., Lau, I. Y.-m., & Peng, S.-q. (2007b). Perceived cultural importance and actual self-importance of values in cultural identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wong, R. Y., & Hong, Y. (2005). Dynamic influences of culture on cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma. Psychological Science, 16, 429–434.Google Scholar
  65. Wu, Y., Yang, Y., & Chiu, C.-y. (2014). Responses to religious norm defection: The case of Hui Chinese Muslims not following the halal diet. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 39, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yang, D. Y. J., Chen, X., Xu, J., Preston, J. L., & Chiu, C.-y. (2016). Cultural symbolism and spatial separation: Some ways to deactivate exclusionary responses to culture mixing. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47, 1286–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yeh, K. H., Bedford, O., & Yang, Y.-J. (2009). A cross-cultural comparison of the coexistence and domain superiority of individuating and relating autonomy. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang, A. Y., & Chiu, C.-y. (2012). Goal commitment and alignment of personal goals predict group identification only when the goals are shared. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 15, 425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zou, X., Tam, K.-p., Morris, M. W., Lee, S.-l., Lau, Y.-m., & Chiu, C.-y. (2009). Culture as common sense: Perceived consensus vs. personal beliefs as mechanisms of cultural influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 579–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chi-yue Chiu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuan-yuan Shi
    • 1
  • Letty Y.-Y. Kwan
    • 1
  1. 1.The Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong

Personalised recommendations