Indicators of Ecosystem Services for Policy Makers in the Netherlands

  • Bart de KnegtEmail author


Nature supplies many useful goods and services to our society.


Natural capital Supply Demand Use Trend Import Technical alternatives Unfulfilled demand 


  1. 1.
    Haines-Young R, Potschin M. Common International Classification of Ecosystem Service (CICES): consultation on version 4, Aug–Dec 2012. EEA Framework Contract No. EEA/IEA/09/003; 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    European Commission. Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Brussels; 2011. p. 17. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  3. 3.
    Ministry of Economic Affairs. Uitvoeringsagenda Natuurlijk Kapitaal: behoud en duurzaam gebruik van biodiversiteit. [Policy Agenda Natural Capital: conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.] Parliamentary document 22-06-2013. The Hague; 2013.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Knegt B. et al. Status and trend of supply and demand of ecosystem services in the Netherlands, in prep.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    CBS, PBL, RIVM, WUR (2015). Ecosystem goods and services in the Netherlands, 2013 (indicator 1572, version 01, 6 October 2015). Statistics Netherlands (CBS), The Hague; PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague; RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven; and Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wageningen Environmental ResearchWageningen University & ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands

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