Introduction to Part III: Trade-Offs and Synergies Among Ecosystem Services

  • Anna F. CordEmail author
  • Nina Schwarz
  • Ralf Seppelt
  • Martin Volk
  • Matthias Schröter


Efforts are increasing to integrate the sustainable provision of ecosystem services into land management decision-making. These efforts, however, are challenged by (1) the variety of methods to map and quantify ecosystem services, and (2) the scarcity of knowledge on how environmental policies and management decisions affect relationships among ecosystem services. A better understanding of relationships among ecosystem services is therefore much needed. This chapter introduces the part of the Atlas framework that focuses on relationships among ecosystem services. It contains a typology and common definitions of different types of relationships, provides a brief overview of the diversity of methods and approaches used, includes a summary of empirical evidence, and, finally, discusses implications for planning and management.


Ecosystem service bundle Driver Interaction Management Multifunctionality 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna F. Cord
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nina Schwarz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ralf Seppelt
    • 1
    • 3
  • Martin Volk
    • 1
  • Matthias Schröter
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Computational Landscape EcologyHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC)University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Geoscience and GeographyMartin-Luther-University Halle-WittenbergHalleGermany
  4. 4.Department of Ecosystem ServicesHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZLeipzigGermany
  5. 5.German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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