Advertisement

Remote Sensing Measurements of Forest Structure Types for Ecosystem Service Mapping

  • Rico FischerEmail author
  • Nikolai Knapp
  • Friedrich Bohn
  • Andreas Huth
Chapter

Abstract

Forests represent an important pool in the global carbon cycle. However, biomass stocks and carbon fluxes are variable due to the fact that forest dynamics are driven by processes that act on different spatial and temporal scales. Estimating forest biomass and productivity for larger regions is therefore a major challenge. In this study, horizontal and vertical forest structure is used to improve forest ecosystem service mapping by remote sensing. By linking remote sensing techniques with vegetation modelling (here FORMIND) and forest inventories, forest structure maps were derived for Germany (resolution 4 km). Using these maps, the role of forest structure for selected ecosystem services of forests has been investigated. For forest state estimations (like biomass) horizontal forest structure plays a key role while for productivity estimations both horizontal and vertical structures are relevant. This concept of forest structure classification in combination with forest modelling and remote sensing has high potential for applications at continental scales as future remote sensing missions will provide information on forest structure.

Keywords

Forest structure Biomass Productivity Remote sensing Forest model Germany 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Thünen Institute for providing the German national forest inventory (BWI) data. We also want to thank Hans Pretzsch, Peter Biber, and Michael Heym (TUM) for their input on forest structure and structure metrics. Kostas Papathanassiou, Victor Cazcarra-Bes, Matteo Pardini and Marivi Tello Alonso (DLR) gave useful insights into linking forest structure and remote sensing. This study was part of the Helmholtz-Alliance Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics. NK was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under the funding reference 50EE1416.

References

  1. 1.
    Gibson L, Lee TM, Koh LP, Brook BW, Gardner TA, Barlow J, et al. Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature. 2011;478:378–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature. 2000;403:853–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R, Brooks TM, Gittleman JL, Joppa LN, et al. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science. 2014;344:1246752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonan GB. Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science. 2008;320:1444–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grace J, Mitchard E, Gloor E. Perturbations in the carbon budget of the tropics. Glob Chang Biol. 2014;20:3238–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Fang J, Houghton R, Kauppi PE, Kurz WA, et al. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science. 2011;333:988–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reifsnyder WE. The role of forests in the global and regional water and energy balances. In: CAgM, editor. CAgM report, no 8. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization; 1982.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reineke LH. Perfecting a stand-density index for even-aged forests. J Agric Res. 1933;46:627–38.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pretzsch H. Forest dynamics, growth and yield. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 2009. p. 281.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dritte Bundeswaldinventur. Thuenen-Institut – Basisdaten (Stand 20.03.2015). 2015. https://bwi.info/Download/de/BWI-Basisdaten/ACCESS2003/. Accessed 7 Oct 2017.
  12. 12.
    Knapp N, Fischer R, Huth A. Linking lidar and forest modeling to assess biomass estimation across scales and disturbance states. Remote Sens Environ. 2018;205:199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bohn FJ, Huth A. The importance of forest structure to biodiversity–productivity relationships. R Soc Open Sci. 2017;4:160521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fischer R, Bohn F, Dantas de Paula M, Dislich C, Groeneveld J, Gutiérrez AG, et al. Lessons learned from applying a forest gap model to understand ecosystem and carbon dynamics of complex tropical forests. Ecol Model. 2016;326:124–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rico Fischer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikolai Knapp
    • 1
  • Friedrich Bohn
    • 1
  • Andreas Huth
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Ecological ModellingHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany

Personalised recommendations