Endoscopic Management of Benign Submucosal Tumors
Benign submucosal tumors in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract are typically discovered incidentally either on routine or surveillance upper endoscopies. Common pathologies include leiomyomas, lipomas, carcinoids, cysts, and ectopic pancreas tissue. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) should be performed preoperatively to assess the depth of penetration prior to consideration for endoscopic intervention. The two most common techniques for endoscopic excision of benign lesions are endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which is used for masses smaller than 2 cm, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which is used for masses larger than 2 cm. Two alternative techniques of unroofing and enucleation are less commonly employed but appear effective.
KeywordsEndoscopic resection Submucosal Benign Foregut Gastric Esophageal