• Alfonso Díez-Minguela
  • Julio Martinez-Galarraga
  • Daniel A. Tirado-Fabregat
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Economic History book series


Why is it important to study regional economic inequality? How does economics explain the existence of regional inequalities? How do we expect regional inequality to evolve in the course of economic development processes? How has regional economic inequality really evolved over the last 30 years? And in the long term? This introductory chapter presents a short approach to these issues and then introduces the main research questions that will be dealt with throughout the book in order to provide an in-depth study of how regional inequality has evolved over the entire trajectory of economic development in Spain, that is, since the mid-nineteenth century until today.


  1. Amos, O. J. (1988). Unbalanced regional growth and regional income inequality in the latter stages of development. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 18(4), 549–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badia-Miró, M., Guilera, J., & Lains, P. (2012). Regional incomes in Portugal: Industrialisation, integration and inequality, 1890–1980. Revista de Historia Económica, 30(2), 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin, R., & Martin, P. (2004). Agglomeration and regional growth. In J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (Eds.), Handbook of regional and urban economics (Vol. 4, pp. 2671–2711). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. Barrios, S., & Strobl, E. (2009). The dynamics of regional inequalities. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 39(5), 575–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barro, R., Mankiw, G., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1995). Capital mobility in neoclassical models of growth. American Economic Review, 85(1), 103–115.Google Scholar
  6. Barro, R., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1991). Convergence across states and regions. Brooking Papers on Economic Activity, 1, 107–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barro, R., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (2003). Economic growth (2nd ed.). Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bazot, G. (2014). Interregional inequalities, convergence, and growth in France from 1840 to 1911. Annals of Economics and Statistics, (113/114), 309–345.Google Scholar
  9. Breinlich, H., Ottaviano, G. I. P., & Temple, J. (2014). Regional growth and regional decline. In P. Aghion & S. N. Durlauf (Eds.), Handbook of economic growth (Vol. 2, pp. 683–779). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  10. Brülhart, M. (2011). The spatial effects of trade openness: A survey. Review of World Economics, 147(1), 59–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brülhart, M., & Sbergami, F. (2009). Agglomeration and growth: Cross-country evidence. Journal of Urban Economics, 65(1), 48–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buyst, E. (2010). Reversal of fortune in a small, open economy: Regional GDP in Belgium, 1896–2000. Rivista di Storia Economica, 26, 75–92.Google Scholar
  13. Buyst, E. (2011). Continuity and change in regional disparities in Belgium during the twentieth century. Journal of Historical Geography, 37(3), 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caruana-Galizia, P. (2013). Estimating French regional income: Departmental per capita gross value added, 1872–1911. Research in Economic History, 29, 71–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caselli, F., & Coleman II, W. J. (2001). The U.S. structural transformation and regional convergence: Reinterpretation. Journal of Political Economy, 109(3), 584–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ciccone, A. (2002). Agglomeration effects in Europe. European Economic Review, 46(2), 213–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciccone, A., & Hall, R. E. (1996). Productivity and the density of economic activity. American Economic Review, 86(1), 54–70.Google Scholar
  18. Combes, P. P., Lafourcade, M., Thisse, J. F., & Toutain, J. C. (2011). The rise and fall of spatial inequalities in France: A long-run perspective. Explorations in Economic History, 48(2), 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crafts, N. (2005). Regional GDP in Britain, 1871–1911: Some estimates. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 52(1), 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crozet, M., & Koenig, P. (2004). Trade liberalization and the internal geography of countries. In T. Mayer & M. Mucchielli (Eds.), Multinational firms’ location and economic geography (pp. 91–109). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  21. Daniele, V., & Malanima, P. (2014). Falling disparities and persisting dualism: Regional development and industrialization in Italy, 1891–2001. Investigaciones de Historia Económica/Research in Economic History, 10(3), 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Díez-Minguela, A., Rosés, J. R., & Sanchis, M. T. (2016). Paris and the French desert revisited: Regional income polarization in France, 1860–2010. Paper presented at the 56th European Regional Science Association Congress (ERSA), Vienna, 23–26 August.Google Scholar
  23. Díez-Minguela, A., & Sanchis, M. T. (2017). Regional income inequality in France: What does history teach us? Paper presented at the XLIII Reunión de Estudios Regionales, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, 16–17 November.Google Scholar
  24. Enflo, K., Henning, M., & Schön, L. (2014). Swedish regional GDP 1855–2000: Estimations and general trends in the Swedish regional system. Research in Economic History, 30, 47–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ezcurra, R., & Rapún, M. (2006). Regional disparities and national development revisited: The case of Western Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies, 13(4), 355–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ezcurra, R., & Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2014). Trade openness and spatial inequality in emerging countries. Spatial Economic Analysis, 9(2), 162–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Felice, E. (2011). Regional value added in Italy, 1891–2001, and the foundation of a long-term picture. Economic History Review, 64(3), 929–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fujita, M., & Thisse, J. F. (2002). Economics of agglomeration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gardiner, B., Martin, R., & Tyler, P. (2011). Does spatial agglomeration increase national growth? Some evidence from Europe. Journal of Economic Geography, 11(6), 979–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Geary, F., & Stark, T. (2002). Examining Ireland’s post-famine economic growth performance. Economic Journal, 112, 919–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Geary, F., & Stark, T. (2015). Regional GDP in the UK, 1861–1911: New estimates. Economic History Review, 68(1), 123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Geary, F., & Stark, T. (2016). What happened to regional inequality in Britain in the twentieth century? Economic History Review, 69(1), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gennaioli, N., La Porta, R., Lopez de Silanes, F., & Schleifer, A. (2014). Growth in regions. Journal of Economic Growth, 19, 259–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giannetti, M. (2002). The effects of integration on regional disparities: Convergence, divergence or both? European Economic Review, 46, 539–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanson, G. H. (2005). Market potential, increasing returns, and geographic concentration. Journal of International Economics, 67, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hirte, G., & Lessmann, C. (2014). Trade, integration, and interregional inequality. CESifo Working Papers Series 4799.Google Scholar
  37. Kanbur, R., Venables, A. J., & Wan, G. (2005). Introduction to the special issue: Spatial inequality and development in Asia. Journal of Development Economics, 9(1), 1–4.Google Scholar
  38. Kanbur, R., & Zhang, X. (2005). Fifty years of regional inequality in China: A journey through central planning, reform, and openness. Review of Development Economics, 9(1), 87–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim, S. (1998). Economic integration and convergence: US regions, 1840–1987. Journal of Economic History, 58(3), 659–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim, S., & Margo, R. (2004). Historical perspectives on U.S. economic geography. In J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (Eds.), Handbook of regional and urban economics (Vol. 4, pp. 2981–3019). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  41. Krugman, P. (1991). Increasing returns and economic geography. Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 483–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krugman, P., & Livas Elizondo, R. (1996). Trade policy and the third world metropolis. Journal of Development Economics, 49(1), 137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. American Economic Review, 45(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  44. Lessmann, C. (2014). Spatial inequality and development: Is there an inverted-U relationship? Journal of Development Economics, 106, 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lessmann, C., & Seidel, A. (2017). Regional inequality, convergence, and its determinants: A view from outer space. European Economic Review, 92, 110–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. List, J. A., & Gallet, C. A. (1999). The Kuznets curve: What happens after the inverted-U? Review of Development Economics, 3(2), 200–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lucas, R. E. (2000). Some macroeconomics for the 21st century. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(1), 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Magrini, S. (2004). Regional (di)convergence. In J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (Eds.), Handbook of regional and urban economics (Vol. 4, pp. 2741–2796). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  49. Milanovic, B. (2005). Half a world: Regional inequality in five great federations. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 10(4), 408–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mitchener, K. J., & McLean, I. W. (1999). U.S. regional growth and convergence, 1880–1980. The Journal of Economic History, 59(4), 1016–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paluzie, E. (2001). Trade policy and regional inequalities. Papers in Regional Science, 80, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Puga, D. (1999). The rise and fall of regional inequalities. European Economic Review, 43(2), 303–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Puga, D. (2002). European regional policies in light of recent location theories. Journal of Economic Geography, 2, 373–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rassek, F., & Thompson, H. (1998). Micro and macro convergence: Factor price equalization and per capita income. Pacific Economic Review, 3(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rodríguez-Pose, A. (2012). Trade and regional inequality. Economic Geography, 88(2), 109–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rodríguez-Pose, A., & Gill, N. (2006). How does trade affect regional disparities? World Development, 34(7), 1201–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing returns and long-run growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94, 1002–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rosés, J. R., & Sanchis, M. T. (In press). A long run perspective on French regional income inequalities, 1860–2010. In N. Wolf & J. R. Rosés (Eds.), The economic development of Europe’s regions: A quantitative history since 1900. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Slaughter, M. (1997). Per-capita income convergence and the role of international trade. American Economic Review, 87, 194–199.Google Scholar
  60. Tirado, D. A., & Badia-Miró, M. (2012). New evidence on regional inequality in Iberia (1900–2000). Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 47, 180–189.Google Scholar
  61. Williamson, J. G. (1965). Regional inequality and the process of national development: A description of the patterns. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 13(4), 1–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wolf, N., & Rosés, J. R. (Eds.). (In press). The economic development of Europe’s regions: A quantitative history since 1900. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. World Bank. (2009). World development report: Reshaping economic geography. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  64. Zhang, X., & Zhang, K. H. (2003). How does globalisation affect regional inequality within a developing country? Evidence from China. Journal of Development Studies, 39, 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfonso Díez-Minguela
    • 1
  • Julio Martinez-Galarraga
    • 1
  • Daniel A. Tirado-Fabregat
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ValènciaValènciaSpain

Personalised recommendations