Advertisement

Applying a Theory of Situation Awareness to Idea Generation: Mitigation of Design Fixation

  • Byounghyun Choi
  • Woojin Park
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 824)

Abstract

As a solution to ambiguity and complexity within the idea generation stage, several structured idea generation methods have been developed. Though their usefulness in the idea generation phase has been verified in many studies, methods or techniques designed to help people generate ideas often lead to associations that hinder people’s free thinking. This phenomenon is called design fixation. Many research studies on design fixation has shown that it severely limits creativity. One of the reasons why design fixation is difficult to overcome is that designers are often unaware of its occurrence during ideation – in other words, designers lose situation awareness in the middle of a cognitively demanding ideation task. An ability to maintain situation awareness, and, thereby, detect and address design fixation in a timely manner would greatly help designers effectively perform ideation. Surprisingly, little research has examined the influences of situation awareness on design fixation and ideation outcomes, or, has developed systems for supporting such situation awareness. To bridge the gap, we developed a situation awareness support system which indicates the elapsed time during idea generation and how many times the user, who is generating ideas, has used each stimulus employed to inspire idea generation. The situation awareness support system helps designers easily and rapidly identify occurrences of design fixation. Finally, an experimental method for examining the impacts of the situation awareness support system has been established.

Keywords

Design fixation Situation awareness Creativity support tools 

References

  1. 1.
    Diehl M, Stroebe W (1987) Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: toward the solution of a riddle. J Pers Soc Psychol 53(3):497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mullen B, Johnson C, Salas E (1991) Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: a meta-analytic integration. Basic Appl Soc Psychol 12(1):3–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paulus PB, Brown VR (2003) Enhancing ideational creativity in groups. Group creativity: Innovation through collaboration, pp 110–136Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Montoya-Weiss MM, O’Driscoll TM (2000) From experience: applying performance support technology in the fuzzy front end. J Prod Innov Manag 17(2):143–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Osterwalder A, Pigneur Y, Bernarda G, Smith A (2014) Value proposition design: how to create products and services customers want. WileyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dennis AR, Valacich JS (1993) Computer brainstorms: more heads are better than one. J Appl Psychol 78(4):531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dalkey NC (1969). The Delphi method: an experimental study of group opinion (No. RM-5888-PR). Rand Corp Santa Monica CalifGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mann D (2001) An introduction to TRIZ: the theory of inventive problem solving. Creativity Innovation Manage 10(2):123–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daly S, Yilmaz S, Seifert C, Gonzalez R (2010) AC 2010–1032: Cognitive heuristic use in engineering design ideation, age, 15, 1Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hwang D, Park W (2015) Development of portability design heuristics. In: DS 80-4 Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 2015), Design for X, Design to X, Milan, Italy, 27–30 July 2015, vol. 4Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jansson DG, Smith SM (1991) Des Stud. Design fixation 12(1):3–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dahl DW, Moreau P (2002) The influence and value of analogical thinking during new product ideation. J Mark Res 39(1):47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Youmans R (2007) Reducing the effects of fixation in creative design. ProQuest, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luchins AS, Luchins EH (1959) Rigidity of behavior: a variational approach to the effect of EinstellungGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luchins AS, Luchins EH, Wertheimer M (1970) Wertheimer’s seminars revisited: problem solving and thinking. Faculty-Student Association, State University of New York at Albany, IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Finke RA, Ward TB, Smith SM (1992) Creative cognition: theory, research, and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gentner D, Markman AB (1997) Structure mapping in analogy and similarity. Am Psychol 52(1):45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linsey J, Tseng I, Fu K, Cagan J, Wood K (2009). Reducing and perceiving design fixation: initial results from an NSF-sponsored workshop. In: DS 58-9: proceedings of ICED 2009, the 17th international conference on engineering design, vol. 9, Human Behavior in Design, Palo Alto, CA, USA, 24–27 August 2009Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Linsey JS, Tseng I, Fu K, Cagan J, Wood KL, Schunn C (2010) A study of design fixation, its mitigation and perception in engineering design faculty. J Mech Des 132(4):041003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Endsley MR (2016) Designing for situation awareness: an approach to user-centered design. CRC pressGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith SM, Blankenship SE (1991) Incubation and the persistence of fixation in problem solving. Am. J Psychol, 61–87Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    German TP, Barrett HC (2005) Functional fixedness in a technologically sparse culture. Psychol Sci 16(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moreno DP, Blessing LT, Yang MC, Hernández AA, Wood KL (2016) Overcoming design fixation: design by analogy studies and nonintuitive findings. AI EDAM 30(2):185–199Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Purcell AT, Gero JS (1996) Design and other types of fixation. Des Stud 17(4):363–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Toh C, Miller S, Kremer G (2012). Increasing novelty through product dissection activities in engineering design. In: Proceedings of international design engineering technical conference (IDETC). ASME, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Franke U, Brynielsson J (2014) Cyber situational awareness–a systematic review of the literature. Comput Secur 46:18–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Press, M. (1986). Situation awareness: Let’s get serious about the clue-bird. Unpublished manuscriptGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wirstad J (1988) The need of system ergonomics for traffic control and passenger information in public transport. Report from two surveys. TFB Medd, (55)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Endsley MR (1995) Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Hum Factors 37(1):32–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shah JJ, Kulkarni SV, Vargas-Hernandez N (2000) Evaluation of idea generation methods for conceptual design: effectiveness metrics and design of experiments. J Mech Des 122(4):377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chulvi V, González-Cruz MC, Mulet E, Aguilar-Zambrano J (2013) Influence of the type of idea-generation method on the creativity of solutions. Res Eng Design 24(1):33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Seoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea (South Korea)

Personalised recommendations