Advertisement

From Rigid to Flexible – From Virtual to Tangible an Evolution of Human-Centered Design

  • Guy André Boy
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 824)

Abstract

Human Centered Design (HCD) has become a necessary and unavoidable approach to seriously consider human factors upstream in systems architecture and functionalities. 20th century practices started by inventing and building tangible objects, functionalities being added incrementally and piled up at infinity, offering not only more automated systems but also more complex uses of these systems. Conversely, since the beginning of the 21st century engineering projects are designed from a computer (i.e., in a virtual environment) by defining scenarios and functional configurations that can be tested using human-in-the-loop simulations where the issue of tangibility is becoming crucial along three dimensions: technology, organizations and people (jobs). These virtual structures and functions must be made tangible from two points of view: that of physics and that of the figurative (i.e., cognitive and socio-cognitive). Tangibility can be characterized and evaluated through five dimensions: complexity; maturity; flexibility; stability; and sustainability. It is interesting to note that these dimensions can be mirrored with that of autonomy: inter-connectivity, independence, flexibility, resilience, and persistence. In this perspective, this article presents a new paradigm, the Human-Systems Integration (HSI) and analyzes the evolution of rigid automation towards a flexible autonomy, proposing a new paradigm of HCD.

Keywords

Human-Centered Design Flexibility Tangibility 

References

  1. Boy GA (1998) Cognitive function analysis. Greenwood/Ablex, WestportGoogle Scholar
  2. Boy GA (2002) Theories of human cognition: to better understand the co-adaptation of people and technology. Knowledge management, organizational intelligence and learning, and complexity. In: Douglas Kiel L (ed) Encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO. Eolss Publishers, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Boy GA (2013) Orchestrating human-centered design. Springer, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boy GA (ed) (2011) Handbook of human-machine interaction: a human-centered design approach. Ashgate, UKGoogle Scholar
  5. Boy GA (2016) Tangible interactive systems. Springer, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boy GA (2017) Human-centered design of complex systems: an experience-based approach. Des Sci J 3Google Scholar
  7. Boy GA, Narkevicius J (2013) Unifying human centered design and systems engineering for human systems integration. In: Aiguier M, Boulanger F, Krob D, Marchal C (eds) Complex systems design and management. Springer, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. Landauer C, Bellman KL (1996) Collaborative system engineering and integration environments. In: 5th international workshops on enabling technologies: infrastructure for collaborative enterprisesGoogle Scholar
  9. Luzeau D, Ruault JR (eds) (2008) Systems of systems. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  10. Minsky M (1985) The society of mind. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Rasmussen J (1983) Skills, rules, and knowledge-signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 13(3):257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sarter NB, Woods DD, Billings CE (1997) Automation surprises. In: Salvendy G (ed) Handbook of human factors & ergonomics, 2nd edn. Wiley, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Tangney J (2016) Human systems roadmap review. presentation DCN# 43-1322-16. National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) human systems conference. https://ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net/ndia/2016/Human/Agenda.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air and Space AcademyToulouseFrance
  2. 2.ESTIA, Technopole IzarbelBidartFrance

Personalised recommendations