Needs and Use of the Information in the Environment by People with Visual Impairment
Most of the information we use in our daily commutes is presented in a visual way. However, this volume of information could be useless for people with a visual impairment, for them it exists some resources such as tactile flooring or braille information points that can constitute their main guiding tools in public spaces. Although, there is little information available about the extent of the real utility of these elements. Furthermore, it has been detected a gap of information regarding the characteristics of the commutes and needs of people with visual impairment.
This study aimed to identify the information needs of people with visual impairment through identifying the following aspects: (1) Daily life activities, (2) Orientation strategies and way finding in the complex built environments, (3) Frequency and way of use of the signals provided in the environment by people with complete blindness or severe visual impairment, (4) Types of discrepancies, errors, and omissions in the characteristics of the environment, which reduce the usability of the space and might put the user in danger, and (5) Safety perception.
Data were obtained through a semi-structured interview that was responded by 18 adults with complete blindness and severe visual impairment. As references for orientation, the most common aspects were textures or level changes on the floor, as well as ambience elements like noise and smell. On the other hand, the information presented in braille was reported as little used, due to the difficulty to find the information. In regard to safety, participants reported feeling unsafe, most of them mentioned street crossing as a major risk point.
The use of auditory, tactile or even olfactory signals can provide important information while commuting, making paramount the design of signals that consider these senses to take advantage of them. It is required as well to assess the characteristics of the existent tactile signals and their location to identify opportunities for improvement to ensure the safety and independence of people with visual impairment.
KeywordsVisual impairment Information resources Information design
A huge thank is extended to people at the Organización de Invidentes Unidos de Jalisco for their great willingness to collaborate in this research. We also thank the students Audrey Benitez, Paulina Salas, Rafael Ramos and Alejandro Martínez, for their great collaboration in this investigation.
- 1.Bourne R, Flaxman S, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli M, Das A, Jonas J, Keeffe K, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR, Vision Loss Expert Group (2017) Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Global Health 5:888–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.World Health Organization (2012) World Health Organization. Get de http://www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html, www.who.int
- 3.Lam D, Rao SK, Ratra V, Liu Y, Mitchell P, King J, Tassignon MJ, Jonas J, Pang CP, Chang, DF (2015) Cataract. Nat Rev Dis Primers, 1–15Google Scholar
- 6.Nabors D, Gibbs M, Sandt L, Rocchi S, Eugine W, Lipinski M (2007) Pedestrian road safety audit guidelines and prompt lists. Federal Highway Administration Office of Safety, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 7.Atkin R (2010) SightLine. Designing better streets for people with low vision. Helen Hamlyn Centre, Royal College of Art, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 9.Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (1998) Guidance on the use of tactile paving surfaces. DETR, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 10.Robson C (2011) Real world research. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- 12.National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute (2009) The Braille Literacy Crisis in America. National Federation of the Blind, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- 13.TNS BMRB (2010) The impact of shared surface streets and shared use pedestrian/cycle paths on the mobility and independence of blind and partially sighted people. The Guide Dogs for the Blind AssociationGoogle Scholar