Cerebral Venous System in Acute and Chronic Brain Injuries

  • Liang Liu
  • Qing-Wu Yang
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)


The cerebral veins system are essential divided into two venous systems: cortical veins and deep veins, which drain blood from brain and play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain injuries. The literature suggests cerebral veins system injury is a major component of acute and chronic brain injury. And the cerebral veins system drainage palys an essential role in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic brain injury. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview of the role of cerebral veins system in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic brain injuries, including venous sinus, cortical veins and deep veins. This chapter may encourage further research in cerebral veins system, with the aim of showing the crucial role of cerebral veins system in acute and chronic brain injury and finding the therapeutic strategies.


Cerebral veins Brain injury Stroke 


  1. 1.
    Kilic T, Akakin A. Anatomy of cerebral veins and sinuses. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2008;23:4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brunori A, Vagnozzi R, Giuffre R. Antonio Pacchioni (1665-1726): early studies of the dura mater. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(3):515–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ameri A, Bousser MG. Cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurol Clin. 1992;10(1):87–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gotoh M, Ohmoto T, Kuyama H. Experimental study of venous circulatory disturbance by dural sinus occlusion. Acta Neurochir. 1993;124(2-4):120–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yoshikawa T, Abe O, Tsuchiya K, Okubo T, Tobe K, Masumoto T, Hayashi N, Mori H, Yamada H, Aoki S, Ohtomo K. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of dural sinus thrombosis. Neuroradiology. 2002;44(6):481–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canhao P, Ferro JM, Lindgren AG, Bousser MG, Stam J, Barinagarrementeria F, Investigators I. Causes and predictors of death in cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke. 2005;36(8):1720–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindvall P, Koskinen LO. Intracranial hypertension due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following head trauma: a report of two cases. Case Rep Neurol. 2013;5(3):168–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ferro JM, Canhao P, Stam J, Bousser MG, Barinagarrementeria F, Investigators I. Prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: results of the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis (ISCVT). Stroke. 2004;35(3):664–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ebright JR, Pace MT, Niazi AF. Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(22):2671–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kojan S, Al-Jumah M. Infection related cerebral venous thrombosis. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006;56(11):494–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heller C, Heinecke A, Junker R, Knofler R, Kosch A, Kurnik K, Schobess R, von Eckardstein A, Strater R, Zieger B, Nowak-Gottl U, Childhood Stroke Study Group. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children: a multifactorial origin. Circulation. 2003;108(11):1362–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shan F, Gao C, Long Y, Huang L, Zheng Y, Chen M, Fan Y, Yin J. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be associated with hepatitis B virus infection: a preliminary finding. Neurol Res. 2015;37(6):510–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Modi M, Singla V, Ahluwalia J, Sharma A, Prabhakar S, Khandelwal N, Duberkar D. HIV infection presenting as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Am J Emerg Med. 2012;30(3):517 e511–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gayathri K, Ramalingam PK, Santhakumar R, Manjunath BV, Karuppuswamy N, Vetriveran B, Selvamani S, Vishnuram P, Natarajan K. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis as a rare complication of primary varicella zoster virus infection. J Assoc Physicians India. 2016;64(7):74–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fries G, Wallenfang T, Hennen J, Velthaus M, Heimann A, Schild H, Perneczky A, Kempski O. Occlusion of the pig superior sagittal sinus, bridging and cortical veins: multistep evolution of sinus-vein thrombosis. J Neurosurg. 1992;77(1):127–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Monea AG, Baeck K, Verbeken E, Verpoest I, Sloten JV, Goffin J, Depreitere B. The biomechanical behaviour of the bridging vein-superior sagittal sinus complex with implications for the mechanopathology of acute subdural haematoma. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2014;32:155–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ono M, Rhoton AL Jr, Peace D, Rodriguez RJ. Microsurgical anatomy of the deep venous system of the brain. Neurosurgery. 1984;15(5):621–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davidson L, McComb JG. The safety of the intraoperative sacrifice of the deep cerebral veins. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013;29(2):199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hirsch JF, Zouaoui A, Renier D, Pierre-Kahn A. A new surgical approach to the third ventricle with interruption of the striothalamic vein. Acta Neurochir. 1979;47(3-4):135–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mizukami M, Mine T. Diagnostic value of the precentral cerebellar vein in cases of the posterior fossa tumors. Keio J Med. 1970;19(4):195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hassler O. Deep cerebral venous system in man. A microangiographic study on its areas of drainage and its anastomoses with the superficial cerebral veins. Neurology. 1966;16(5):505–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamilton BE, Hoyert DL, Martin JA, Strobino DM, Guyer B. Annual summary of vital statistics: 2010-2011. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):548–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mishchenko AL, Makatsariia AD. [Characteristics of the hemostatic system in term newborn infants]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk). 1982;1(3):39–41.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pichler E, Pichler L. The neonatal coagulation system and the vitamin K deficiency bleeding - a mini review. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158(13-14):385–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang JY, Chan AK, Callen DJ, Paes BA. Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis: sifting the evidence for a diagnostic plan and treatment strategy. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):e693–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Banker BQ. Cerebral vascular disease in infancy and childhood. 1. Occlusive vascular diseases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1961;20:127–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nwosu ME, Williams LS, Edwards-Brown M, Eckert GJ, Golomb MR. Neonatal sinovenous thrombosis: presentation and association with imaging. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;39(3):155–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Garcia JH, Williams JP, Tanaka J. Spontaneous thrombosis of deep cerebral veins: a complication of arteriovenous malformation. Stroke. 1975;6(2):164–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Perlman JM. Intervention strategies for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury. Clin Ther. 2006;28(9):1353–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Silas R, Sehgal A, Walker AM, Wong FY. Cerebral oxygenation during subclinical seizures in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012;16(3):304–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shetty J. Neonatal seizures in hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy—risks and benefits of anticonvulsant therapy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2015;57(Suppl 3):40–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Johnston MV, Trescher WH, Ishida A, Nakajima W. Neurobiology of hypoxic-ischemic injury in the developing brain. Pediatr Res. 2001;49(6):735–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kumar P, Halamek LP. Resuscitation of the fetus and newborn. Clin Perinatol. 2012;39(4):xv–vi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kumral A, Tuzun F, Tugyan K, Ozbal S, Yilmaz O, Yesilirmak CD, Duman N, Ozkan H. Role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Early Hum Dev. 2013;89(3):165–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li Q, Li H, Roughton K, Wang X, Kroemer G, Blomgren K, Zhu C. Lithium reduces apoptosis and autophagy after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhu L, Qian L, Wang S, Wang T, Jiang L. Expression of ephrinB2 and EphB4 in a neonatal rat model of periventricular white matter damage. J Perinat Med. 2015;43(3):367–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fisher PG. Are neonatal stroke and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy related? J Pediatr. 2016;173:1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stam J. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(17):1791–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Amoozegar F, Ronksley PE, Sauve R, Menon BK. Hormonal contraceptives and cerebral venous thrombosis risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Neurol. 2015;6:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Provenzale JM, Joseph GJ, Barboriak DP. Dural sinus thrombosis: findings on CT and MR imaging and diagnostic pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170(3):777–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Einhaupl KM, Masuhr F. Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis - an update. Eur J Neurol. 1994;1(2):109–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Liu
    • 1
  • Qing-Wu Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyXinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations