Advertisement

Drug Therapy of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

  • Yilong Wang
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is less common than most other types of stroke but may be a more serious disorder. The treatment strategy consists of reversing the possible cause, antithrombotic therapy, and control of seizures, intracranial hypertension and headache. The anticoagulation is the mainstay treatment for CVT, including low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), heparin and warfarin. Some studies demonstrated new oral anticoagulants may be potential while need further investigation.

Keywords

Cerebral veins Stroke Treatment 

References

  1. 1.
    Saposnik G, Barinagarrementeria F, Brown RD Jr, Bushnell CD, Cucchiara B, Cushman M, deVeber G, Ferro JM, Tsai FY. Diagnosis and management of cerebral venous thrombosis: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011;42:1158–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Einhaupl KM, Villringer A, Meister W, Mehraein S, Garner C, Pellkofer M, Haberl RL, Pfister HW, Schmiedek P. Heparin treatment in sinus venous thrombosis. Lancet. 1991;338:597–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    de Bruijn SF, Stam J. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of anticoagulant treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin for cerebral sinus thrombosis. Stroke. 1999;30:484–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coutinho J, de Bruijn SF, Deveber G, Stam J. Anticoagulation for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;43:CD002005.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stam J. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1791–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sacco RL, Adams R, Albers G, Alberts MJ, Benavente O, Furie K, Goldstein LB, Gorelick P, Halperin J, Harbaugh R, Johnston SC, Katzan I, Kelly-Hayes M, Kenton EJ, Marks M, Schwamm LH, Tomsick T. Guidelines for prevention of stroke in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council on Stroke: co-sponsored by the Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Circulation. 2006;113:e409–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Martinelli I, Franchini M, Mannucci PM. How I treat rare venous thromboses. Blood. 2008;112:4818–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Misra UK, Kalita J, Chandra S, Kumar B, Bansal V. Low molecular weight heparin versus unfractionated heparin in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:1030–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Afshari D, Moradian N, Nasiri F, Razazian N, Bostani A, Sariaslani P. The efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurosciences. 2015;20:357–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coutinho JM, Ferro JM, Canhao P, Barinagarrementeria F, Bousser MG, Stam J. Unfractionated or low-molecular weight heparin for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke. 2010;41:2575–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Soleau SW, Schmidt R, Stevens S, Osborn A, MacDonald JD. Extensive experience with dural sinus thrombosis. Neurosurgery. 2003;52:534–44; discussion 542-534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Linkins LA, Dans AL, Moores LK, Bona R, Davidson BL, Schulman S, Crowther M. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141:e495S–530S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dentali F, Gianni M, Crowther MA, Ageno W. Natural history of cerebral vein thrombosis: a systematic review. Blood. 2006;108:1129–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bates SM, Greer IA, Pabinger I, Sofaer S, Hirsh J. Venous thromboembolism, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133:844s–86s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hon SF, Li HL, Cheng PW. Use of direct thrombin inhibitor for treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;21:915.e11–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bacchus F, Schulman S. Clinical experience with the new oral anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:513–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gross PL, Weitz JI. New anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:380–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Geisbusch C, Richter D, Herweh C, Ringleb PA, Nagel S. Novel factor xa inhibitor for the treatment of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: first experience in 7 patients. Stroke. 2014;45:2469–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harder S. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of rivaroxaban: considerations for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Thromb J. 2014;12:22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blann AD. Non-vitamin k antagonist oral anticoagulants (noacs): a view from the laboratory. Br J Biomed Sci. 2014;71:158–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Falck-Ytter Y, Francis CW, Johanson NA, Curley C, Dahl OE, Schulman S, Ortel TL, Pauker SG, Colwell CW Jr. Prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141:e278S–325S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Viegas LD, Stolz E, Canhao P, Ferro JM. Systemic thrombolysis for cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis: a systematic review. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014;37:43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Khan M, Kamal AK, Wasay M. Controversies of treatment modalities for cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke Res Treat. 2010;2010:956302.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Canhao P, Cortesao A, Cabral M, Ferro JM, Stam J, Bousser MG, Barinagarrementeria F. Are steroids useful to treat cerebral venous thrombosis? Stroke. 2008;39:105–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ameri A, Bousser MG. Cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurol Clin. 1992;10:87–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferro JM, Canhao P. Acute treatment of cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2008;10:126–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hanley DF, Feldman E, Borel CO, Rosenbaum AE, Goldberg AL. Treatment of sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with cerebral hemorrhage and intracranial hypertension. Stroke. 1988;19:903–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rajan Vivakaran TT, Srinivas D, Kulkarni GB, Somanna S. The role of decompressive craniectomy in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:738–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Davoudi V, Keyhanian K, Saadatnia M. Risk factors for remote seizure development in patients with cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. Seizure. 2014;23:135–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ferro JM, Correia M, Rosas MJ, Pinto AN, Neves G. Seizures in cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003;15:78–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kalita J, Chandra S, Misra UK. Significance of seizure in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Seizure. 2012;21:639–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ferro JM, Canhao P, Bousser MG, Stam J, Barinagarrementeria F. Early seizures in cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: risk factors and role of antiepileptics. Stroke. 2008;39:1152–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Canevini MP, De Sarro G, Galimberti CA, Gatti G, Licchetta L, Malerba A, Muscas G, La Neve A, Striano P, Perucca E. Relationship between adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs, number of coprescribed drugs, and drug load in a large cohort of consecutive patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51:797–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Messe SR, Sansing LH, Cucchiara BL, Herman ST, Lyden PD, Kasner SE. Prophylactic antiepileptic drug use is associated with poor outcome following ICH. Neurocrit Care. 2009;11:38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    de Freitas GR, Bogousslavsky J. Risk factors of cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2008;23:23–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Preter M, Tzourio C, Ameri A, Bousser MG. Long-term prognosis in cerebral venous thrombosis. Follow-up of 77 patients. Stroke. 1996;27:243–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Baumgartner RW, Studer A, Arnold M, Georgiadis D. Recanalisation of cerebral venous thrombosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:459–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu YW, Hamrick SE, Miller SP, Haward MF, Lai MC, Callen PW, Barkovich AJ, Ferriero DM. Intraventricular hemorrhage in term neonates caused by sinovenous thrombosis. Ann Neurol. 2003;54:123–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yilong Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations