Life After Life: Spiritual Life in Christianity
Christian theology began to truly divide physiology and psychology with the introduction of a second life. In Jewish thinking, all life was an expression of Divine action in the world. The New Testament shows elements of this, but also speaks of a second birth and a second death. Spiritual life became associated with this new life and with resurrection, each of which had vegetable, animal, and rational elements. Trying to understand biology in light of both Greek souls and the New Testament, the earliest Christian authors took two approaches. Tertullian embraced the materialist approach of the Stoics while Origen embraced the transcendent approach of Plato.
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