Progress in Crisis, Genetic Engineering and Philosophy of Technology
- 424 Downloads
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the book by characterizing central themes and ideas: the narrative of progress, technological optimism, technological pessimism, and precautionary ethics. The chapter begins by developing the idea that the polarized debate over genetic engineering in agriculture is at least in part the result of a narrative crisis created by a clash between technological optimism and technological pessimism. The ultimate goal of the book is to investigate possibilities for moving beyond the current polarized debate over genetic engineering. This chapter aims to start the process of identifying obstacles to, and possibilities for moving beyond the current narrative crisis and to develop a narrative of sustainabilty. To that end, the chapter investigates and identifies hindrances to research and development in agricultural biotechnology from making greater contributions to creating more just and sustainable societies. I identify three obstacles: (1) costly and time-consuming precautionary regulations, (2) market failures in the private sector and (3) limited public sector funding for social-goods research. Chapter 2 will explore ideas for moving beyond these three obstacles.
- Arnold, P.C. 2014. Lab to farm: Applying research on plant genetics and genomics to crop improvement. PLoS Biology 12 (6). http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1001878. Accessed 24 May 2016.
- Berry, W. 1993. Why I am not going to buy a computer. In Technology and the future, ed. A. Teich, 66–72. New York: Saint Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
- Berry, W., Herman. J., and Michael, C. 2007. ‘Our biotech future’: An exchange. The New York Review of Books. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2007/09/27/our-biotech-future-an-exchange/. Accessed 5 May 2016.
- Biotechnology Innovation Organization. 2016. Biotechnology Innovation Organization. https://www.bio.org. Accessed 24 May 2016.
- Charles, D. 2001. Lords of the harvest: Biotech, big money, and the future of food. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.Google Scholar
- Dawidoff, N. 2009. The civil heretic. New York Times Magazine. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/29/magazine/29Dyson-t.html?em&_r=0. Accessed 25 May 2016.
- Diamond, J. 2005. Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
- Dyson, F.J. 1999. The sun, the genome, and the internet: Tools of scientific revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- ———. 2006. The scientist as rebel. New York: New York Review Books.Google Scholar
- ———. 2007. Our biotech future. New York Review 54(12) http:// www. nybooks. com/ articles/ 20370. Accessed 6 May 2016.
- Fernandez-Cornejo, J., Wechsler, S., Livingston, M., and Mitchell, L. 2014. Genetically engineered crops in the United States. Economic research report No. 162, United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=45182. Accessed 24 May 2016.
- Food and Agriculture Organization Ethics Series. 2010. The ethics of sustainable agricultural intensification. In The ethics of intensification, agricultural development and change, ed. P.B. Thompson, 19–41. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Glenna, L.L., and K. Jones. 2015. Genetically engineered crops and rural society. In Plant biotechnology: Experiences and future prospects, ed. A. Ricroch, S. Chopra, and S. Fleischer, 93–106. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hill, C.T. 1989. Technology and international competitiveness: Metaphor for progress. In Science technology and social progress, Research in technology studies, ed. S. Goldman, vol. 2, 33–47. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press.Google Scholar
- Jasanoff, S. 2005. Let them eat cake’: GM foods and the democratic imagination. In Science and citizens: Globalization and the challenge of engagement, ed. M. Leach, I. Scoones, and B. Wynne, 183–198. London/New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Jonas, H. 1979. Das prinzip verantwortung: Versuch einer ethik für die technologische zivilisation. Auflage: Suhrkamp Verlag. English edition: Jonas, H. 1985. The imperative of responsibility: In search of an ethics for the technological age (trans: Jonas H and Herr D). Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Lasch, C. 1989. The idea of progress in our time. In Science technology and social progress, ed. S. Goldman, 229–239. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press.Google Scholar
- MacIntyre, A. 1980. Epistemological crises, dramatic narrative, and the philosophy of science. In Paradigms and revolutions: Applications and appraisals of Thomas Kuhn’s philosophy of science, ed. G. Gutting, 54–74. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
- Miller, H.I., and G. Conko. 2004. The frankenfood myth: How protests and politics threaten the biotech revolution. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Monsanto. Improving agriculture. http://www.monsanto.com/improvingagriculture/pages/why-does-agriculture-need-to-be-improved.aspx. Accessed 24 May 2016.
- National Science Foundation. At a glance. National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/about/glance.jsp. Accessed 24 May 2016.
- Porter, J.R., and J. Rasmussen. 2009. Agriculture and technology. In A companion to philosophy of technology, ed. V. Hendricks, J. Olsen, and S. Pedersen, 285–288. Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Sandel, M.J. 2009. Justice: What’s the right thing to do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
- ———. 2012. What money can’t buy: The moral limits of markets. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
- Thompson, P.B. 1997. Food biotechnology in ethical perspective. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
- ———. 1998. Agricultural ethics: Research, teaching, and public policy. Ames: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
- ———. 2007. Food biotechnology in ethical perspective. 2nd ed. Springer.Google Scholar
- UCI News. 2014. UC Irvine establishes Institute for Innovation to expedite technology transfer and commercialization of research. UCI News. https://news.uci.edu/press-releases/uc-irvine-establishes-institute-for-innovation-to-expedite-technology-transfer-and-commercialization-of-research/. Accessed 23 May 2016.
- United Nations General Assembly. 1948. The universal declaration of human rights. United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. Accessed 25 May 2016.
- United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner. 1975. Declaration on the use of scientific and technological progress in the interests of peace and for the betterment of mankind. OHCHR. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ScientificAndTechnologicalProgress.aspx. Accessed 24 May 2016.
- Wohlsen, M. 2011. Biopunk, DIY scientists hack the software of life. New York: Penguin Group.Google Scholar
- Wright, R. 2004. A short history of progress. New York: Carroll & Graff Publishers.Google Scholar