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Challenges, Open Questions and Future Direction in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Research and Applications

  • Michael A. NitscheEmail author
  • Helena Knotkova
  • Adam J. Woods
  • Marom Bikson
Chapter

Abstract

The broad overview of theoretical and practical aspects pertaining to tDCS applications in this book demonstrates that tDCS applications are rapidly expanding with enormous potential in brain research and therapy. Building on the foundation of existing evidence, tDCS can benefit from further technological development and methodological refinement. This chapter discusses the state of the art as well as open questions and gaps in existing knowledge and provides insight into possible future technology developments and research initiatives intended to substantiate the potential that tDCS holds for research and clinical applications. In specifics, the need includes: further research supported by advanced neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods in order to bridge gaps in understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of tDCS and relations to specific functional outcomes; optimization and standardization of stimulation protocols; building a pool of long-term safety data and an environment for data sharing; development toward user-friendly solutions; progress toward implementation of tDCS to clinical practice; initiatives supporting education and professional competence in tDCS use in research and clinical settings.

Keywords

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Non-invasive neuromodulation Technology development Good practice 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Nitsche
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Helena Knotkova
    • 3
    • 4
  • Adam J. Woods
    • 5
  • Marom Bikson
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and NeurosciencesLeibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human FactorsDortmundGermany
  2. 2.University Medical Hospital BergmannsheilBochumGermany
  3. 3.MJHS Institute for Innovation in Palliative CareNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Family and Social MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  5. 5.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory (CAM), McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health ProfessionsUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  6. 6.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe City College of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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