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Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Cognitive Neuroscience

  • Priyanka P. Shah-Basak
  • Roy H. Hamilton
  • Michael A. NitscheEmail author
  • Adam J. Woods
Chapter

Abstract

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a remarkable research tool that has witnessed incredible growth in the field of cognitive neuroscience in recent years. As a technology that can manipulate brain activity, it can be used to complement neuroimaging approaches to define causal relationships between brain physiology and human behavior. The ease with which tDCS can be applied is one of the primary reasons for its ever growing popularity. A single session of tDCS enables the transient modulation of neural activity and cortical excitability, while protracted stimulation paired with behavioral tasks can induce regional plasticity in areas directly involved in the task and can result in enduring changes in performance. The effects of tDCS are not restricted to the areas to which it is directly targeted; rather, tDCS can elicit network-level changes that are relevant to complex aspects of human cognition and behavior.

In the first section of this chapter, we will describe current applications of tDCS in the field of cognitive neuroscience, covering a wide range of topics, including perception, memory formation, and social neuroscience. In the next section, we will discuss cognitive and neural enhancement using tDCS, in which the main goal is to improve performance in otherwise healthy humans. The last section will focus on the current state of the art in the field, and will include a critical discussion of the opportunities and limitations of tDCS in cognitive neuroscience, as well as future directions.

Keywords

Cognition Memory Perception Social neuroscience Neuroenhancement tDCS Functional connectivity Functional imaging Structure-function relationships Limitations Future directions 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyanka P. Shah-Basak
    • 1
  • Roy H. Hamilton
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael A. Nitsche
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  • Adam J. Woods
    • 7
  1. 1.Rotman Research InstituteBaycrest Health SciencesTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Goddard Laboratories, Room 518University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychology and NeurosciencesLeibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human FactorsDortmundGermany
  6. 6.University Medical Hospital BergmannsheilBochumGermany
  7. 7.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory (CAM), McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health ProfessionsUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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