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Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aging Research

  • Adam J. WoodsEmail author
  • Daria Antonenko
  • Agnes Flöel
  • Benjamin M. Hampstead
  • David Clark
  • Helena Knotkova
Chapter

Abstract

As we age, the brain not only undergoes structural changes, but also a cascade of neurophysiological and neurochemical changes. These age-related changes result in declines in cognition, motor, and sensory function, even in the absence of neurological or neurodegenerative disease. Transcranial direct current stimulation-based effects on neuronal activity, neuroplastic response of tissue, and modulation of hyper vs. hypo active brain systems may have significant benefit for ameliorating symptoms of advanced aging in the brain. However, there are significant practical, technical and methodological considerations necessary for appropriately designing and implementing tDCS in aging populations. In this chapter, we will discuss the impact of brain atrophy and comorbid age-related conditions on tDCS, as well as potential modifying effects of medications commonly used in older adults. This chapter will describe appropriate considerations for selection of functional outcomes for tDCS studies in older adults. This will include discussion of relevant changes in motor and cortical excitability with age that can impact tDCS outcomes. We then review evidence for effects of tDCS on age-related cognitive, physical and motor function, and sensory processing while paying special attention to methodological challenges in these domains. This chapter will also cover special considerations for the adjunctive use of tDCS with electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging in older adults, and specific ethical consideration of tDCS use in this population. Finally, the chapter will examine additional considerations for the application of tDCS for purposes of enhancing function in healthy seniors in the absence of disease states.

Keywords

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) Aging Cognition Sensory-motor function Functional outcomes Age-related disorders Neurophysiology Design Methodology Technical considerations Functional enhancement 

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam J. Woods
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daria Antonenko
    • 2
  • Agnes Flöel
    • 3
  • Benjamin M. Hampstead
    • 4
    • 5
  • David Clark
    • 6
  • Helena Knotkova
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory (CAM), McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyNeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité – UniversitätsmedizinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyUniversity Medical Hospital GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  4. 4.Department of Mental Health ServicesVeterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare SystemsAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  6. 6.Department of Aging and Geriatric ResearchBrain Rehabilitation Research Center, Malcom Randall VA Medical CenterGainesvilleUSA
  7. 7.MJHS Institute for Innovation in Palliative CareNew YorkUSA
  8. 8.Department of Family and Social MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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