Home-Based Patient-Delivered Remotely Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

  • Helena KnotkovaEmail author
  • Ashley Clayton
  • Michael Stevens
  • Alexa Riggs
  • Leigh E. Charvet
  • Marom Bikson


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment requires multiple administrations repeated over weeks or months for optimal benefit. However, for most patients, traveling to the clinic for daily treatment represents enhanced burden and is not feasible. Instead, tDCS devices may be provided for home delivery. This chapter introduces at-home tDCS within a framework of the overall technological development toward remote interventions and monitoring in biomedical research and practice. The overall potential of at-home tDCS with its benefits, challenges, potential risks and feasible precautions are reviewed. Approaches to providing supervised at-home tDCS are presented with an overview of core features of at-home service delivery tDCS protocols, as well as both practical and hypothetical examples of at-home tDCS applications in specific patient populations chosen to reflect the planning and practical considerations needed in different types of common patient groups. The emerging market for direct-to-consumer device options is also discussed. The ethics, challenges, open questions and future trends in at-home tDCS are considered in the context of ongoing technological developments.


At-home tDCS Remote monitoring tDCS applications Remotely-supervised tDCS Telehealth Telemedicine Remote cognitive stimulation Remote interventions eHealth Remote technology Home-based tDCS Telecare 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena Knotkova
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ashley Clayton
    • 3
  • Michael Stevens
    • 4
  • Alexa Riggs
    • 1
  • Leigh E. Charvet
    • 3
  • Marom Bikson
    • 5
  1. 1.MJHS Institute for Innovation in Palliative CareNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family and Social MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyNew York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe City College of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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