Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Integration with Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Near Infrared Spectroscopy Imaging, and Electroencephalography

  • Adam J. WoodsEmail author
  • Marom Bikson
  • Kenneth Chelette
  • Jacek Dmochowski
  • Anirban Dutta
  • Zeinab Esmaeilpour
  • Nigel Gebodh
  • Michael A. Nitsche
  • Charlotte Stagg


Transcranial direct current stimulation provides researchers and clinicians with the ability to non-invasively modulate the firing rate of neurons. However, the focality and overall consequences of tDCS for neural systems is often unclear based on tDCS alone. When tDCS is paired with state-of-the-art neurophysiology, neuroimaging and spectroscopic techniques, researchers and clinicians can gain important insight into the neural underpinnings of tDCS effects, as well as gain novel insight into brain-behaviour relationships. In this chapter, we will consider approaches for integration of tDCS with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging, and electroencephalography (EEG). We will discuss technical considerations, benefits, limitations, and optimal application strategies for the integration of each methodology with transcranial direct current stimulation. This chapter will provide an important foundation for understanding “how” to integrate these technologies, as well as “when” integration can be of benefit for researchers and clinicians.


Transcranial direct current stimulation Functional magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Functional near infrared spectroscopy Electroencephalography Event-related potentials Technology integration Methodology Neuroimaging Technical guidance 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam J. Woods
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marom Bikson
    • 2
  • Kenneth Chelette
    • 3
  • Jacek Dmochowski
    • 4
  • Anirban Dutta
    • 5
  • Zeinab Esmaeilpour
    • 6
  • Nigel Gebodh
    • 6
  • Michael A. Nitsche
    • 7
    • 8
  • Charlotte Stagg
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory (CAM), McKnight Brain Institute, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe City College of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.ANT Neuro North AmericaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Neural Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical EngineeringGrove School of Engineering, The City College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Neuroengineering and Informatics for Rehabilitation Laboratory, Jacobs School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity at Buffalo SUNYBuffaloUSA
  6. 6.Department of Biomedical EngineeringThe City College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.Department of Psychology and NeurosciencesLeibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human FactorsDortmundGermany
  8. 8.University Medical Hospital BergmannsheilBochumGermany
  9. 9.Oxford Centre for fMRI of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical NeurosciencesUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  10. 10.Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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