Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Planning Epilepsy Surgery

  • Pantelis Lioumis
  • Jyrki P. Mäkelä


Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is increasingly used for noninvasive functional mapping of eloquent cortical areas in preoperative evaluation for brain surgery. Reliability of nTMS has been studied in healthy populations. Here we describe the methods and protocols for nTMS mapping of motor- and language-related cortical areas and describe results of nTMS in patients going through work-ups for epilepsy surgery. Clinical evidence indicates that nTMS mapping is a safe and useful tool in planning epilepsy surgery.


Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) Electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) Intractable epilepsy surgery Motor cortex localization Language cortical localization Noninvasive functional mapping Presurgical evaluation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pantelis Lioumis
    • 1
  • Jyrki P. Mäkelä
    • 2
  1. 1.Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.BioMag Laboratory, HUS Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland

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