Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Epilepsy

  • Tomislav Sajko
  • Krešimir Rotim


Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has confirmed its seizure suppression effect by randomized control trials [1]. More than 50% of seizure reductions have been reported in approximately 50% of patients after 2 years of treatment [2]. Independently of the reduction in seizure frequency, it has been reported that VNS improves attention, cognition, behavior, mood, and quality of life [3]. The hypothesis that afferent vagal signals modulate abnormal cortical excitability via various pathways has not been fully clarified. The relevant anatomy and physiology of the vagal nerve as well as indications for its clinical use and the implant operative technique are described.


Nervus vagus Stimulation therapy Refractory epilepsy Surgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomislav Sajko
    • 1
  • Krešimir Rotim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgerySestre Milosrdnice University Hospital CenterZagrebCroatia

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