Advertisement

Recovery of Phosphorus and Nitrogen from Sewage Sludge as Struvite Using a Combined Alkali Hydrolysis and Thermal Treatment Process

  • Ayla UysalEmail author
  • Mehmet Aydoğan
  • Emine Çelik
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Alkali (NaOH) hydrolysis and low-temperature thermal treatment were applied to digested sludge for the recovery and release of PO43− and NH4+. The Box-Behnken design was applied in the hydrolysis using 0.5M NaOH for the optimization of the conditions that affect the nutrients and metal release from digested sludge. PO43− release was positively associated with decreasing liquid/solid ratio and increasing temperature. Moreover, Ca, Fe, and Zn releases also increase with increasing temperature. However, the temperature did not have any effect on NH4+ release. An optimal condition for the release of nutrients and metals was obtained at a liquid/solid ratio of 10/1 (mL/g), a temperature of 40 °C, and a reaction time of 40 min. In this optimal condition, the concentrations of PO43− and NH4+ released were 921.00 and 819.15 mg/L, respectively. The removal rates of PO43− and NH4+ from hydrolyzed sludge liquid by struvite crystallization were 95.27% and 77.95% in this condition. Struvite obtained had low Ca, Fe, and Al content. The produced struvite meets the legal limits for fertilizer use in terms of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cr content specified by Turkish regulations.

Keywords

Alkali hydrolysis Metal release Nutrients recovery Sewage sludge Struvite Thermal treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK 2209-A program, project no. 1919 B011502482).

References

  1. 1.
    Bi W, Li Y, Hu Y (2014) Recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen from alkaline hydrolysis supernatant of excess sludge by magnesium ammonium phosphate. Bioresour Technol 166:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang Y, Xiao Q, Zhong H, Zheng X, Wei Y (2016) Effect of organic matter on phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge subjected to microwave hybrid pretreatment. J Environ Sci 39:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu Y, Hu H, Liu J, Luo J, Qian G, Wang A (2015) pH dependent phosphorus release from waste activated sludge: contributions of phosphorus speciation. Chem Eng J 267:260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen Y, Jiang S, Yuan H, Zhou Q, Gu G (2007) Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res 41:683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takahaski M, Takemoto Y, Onsihi K (2015) Phosphorus recovery from carbonized sewage sludge by hydrothermal processes. J Mater Sci Eng 5(1-2):58–62Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Uysal A, Tuncer D, Kir E, Sardohan Koseoglu T (2016) Phosphorus recovery from hydrolysed sewage sludge liquid containing metals using Donnan dialysis. 6th International Conference on Environmental Pollution and Remediation (ICEPR’16), Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on New Technologies, August 2016, Budapest, Hungary, ICEPR 125, p 1–7Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ali TU, Kim DJ (2016) Phosphorus extraction and sludge dissolution by acid and alkali treatments of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) treated wastewater sludge. Bioresour Technol 217:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu DC, Zhong CQ, Yin KH, Peng SH, Zhu TT, Cheng G (2018) Alkaline solubilization of excess mixed sludge and the recovery of released phosphorus as magnesium ammonium phosphate. Bioresour Technol 249:783–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sano A, Kanomata M, Inoue H, Sugiura N, Xu KQ, Inamori Y (2012) Extraction of raw sewage sludge containing iron phosphate for phosphorus recovery. Chemosphere 89:1243–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim M, Han DW, Kim DJ (2015) Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment. Bioresour Technol 190:522–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Takiguchi N, Kishino M, Kuroda A, Kato J, Ohtake H (2007) Effect of mineral elements on phosphorus release from heated sewage sludge. Bioresour Technol 98:2533–2537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suarez-Iglesias O, Urrea JL, Oulego P, Collado S, Diaz M (2017) Valuable compounds from sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis and wet oxidation. A review. Sci Total Environ 584–585:921–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doyle JD, Parsons SA (2002) Struvite formation, control and recovery. Water Res 36:3925–3940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Uysal A, Tuncer D, Kir E, Sardohan Koseoglu T (2017) Recovery of nutrients from digested sludge as struvite with a combination process of acid hydrolysis and Donnan dialysis. Water Sci Technol 76(10):2733–2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Torres ML, Liorens MDE (2008) Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes. Waste Manage 28(11):2229–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim J, Park C, Kim TH, Lee M, Kim S, Kim SW, Lee J (2003) Effects of various pretreatments for enhanced anaerobic digestion with waste activated sludge. J Biosci Bioeng 95(3):271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dong CH, Xie XQ, Wang XL, Zhani Y, Yao YJ (2009) Application of Box-Behnken design in optimisation for polysaccharides extraction from cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Food Bioprod Process 87(2):139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2005) 21st edn, American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment F, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Uysal A, Yılmazel YD, Demirer GN (2010) The determination of fertilizer quality of the formed struvite from effluent of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester. J Hazard Mater 181:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jaffer Y, Clark TA, Pearce P, Parsons SA (2002) Potential phosphorus recovery by struvite formation. Water Res 36:1834–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cieslik B, Konieczka P (2017) A review of phosphorus recovery methods at various steps of wastewater treatment and sewage sludge management. The concept of “no solid waste generation” and analytical methods. J Clean Prod 142:1728–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

Personalised recommendations