Advertisement

Evaluation of Phosphorus Substance Flows for a Long-Term Resource Management

  • Demet Seyhan
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Resource management, akin to hazardous waste management, must adopt a cradle-to-grave perspective for key resources. One good reason is that substance flows go unnoticed in the regional metabolism and the global trade of all goods (im Güterfluss). This in turn conceals causality in depletion and pollution, or hinders an effective conservation of resources and the environment, leaving its management symptomatic. Phosphorus (P) is a key nonrenewable resource, which must be imported to almost all countries, and its use as fertilizer cannot be substituted posing a constraint on the global food production and for the long term. This paper shows the P-flows used and lost abroad (the Hinterland) to produce the goods imported into one country, as a continuum of our earlier study and for the cases of Turkey and Austria. These Hinterland flows represent the actual and total raw material consumption of a country and can in some cases dominate the overall system belittling front-end or country-wide recycling and conservation efforts. In particular, losses in global agriculture as well as the magnitude of mining wastes must be considered for effective decisions on P-management. Taking the Hinterland into account will link those global and regional P-flows and help in setting the right priorities for P-management. Implication for recycling and the circular economy is the potential shown for recovery, which shall only take place alongside with reducing big losses and the inefficiencies within one country and elsewhere.

Keywords

Resource management Phosphorus Material flow analysis Evaluation method Hinterland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank her supervisor, Prof. Paul H. Brunner, for his time, for his method, and for his faith, with great respect. Thanks also to the Austrian Exchange Service, ÖAD, for the scholarship.

References

  1. 1.
    Seyhan D (2006) Development of a method for the regional management and long-term use of non-renewable resources: the case for the essential resource phosphorus. Dissertation. TU WienGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brunner PH, Daxbeck H, Henseler G, von Steiger B, Beer B, Piepke G (1990) Der regionale Stoffhaushalt im Unteren Bünztal: Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Erfassung des regionalen Stoffhaushaltes. Eidgenössische Anstalt für Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewässerschutz EAWAG, CH-8600 Dübendorf; SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Regitze L, Jens T, Jens H (1984) Phosphorus recovery from sewage for agriculture. Waste Manage Res 2(4):369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seyhan D, Erdincler A (2003) Effect of lime stabilisation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges on the phosphorus availability to plants. Water Sci Technol 48(1):155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuan Z, Pratt S, Batstone DJ (2012) Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes. Curr Opin Biotechnol 23(6):878–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baccini P, Brunner PH (2012) Metabolism of the anthroposphere, analysis, evaluation, design, 2nd edn. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seyhan D (2009) Country-scale phosphorus balancing as a base for resources conservation. Resour Conserv Recycl 53(12):698–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seyhan D, Weikard HP, Ierland E (2012) An economic model of long term phosphorus extraction and recycling. Resour Conserv Recycl 61:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weikard HP, Seyhan D (2009) Distribution of phosphorus resources between rich and poor countries: the effect of recycling. Ecol Econ 68(6):1749–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chowdhury RB, Moore GA, Weatherley AJ, Arora M (2014) A review of recent substance flow analyses of phosphorus to identify priority management areas at different geographical scales. Resour Conserv Recycl 83:213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsubae K, Kajiyama J, Hiraki T, Nagasaka T (2011) Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy. Chemosphere 84(6):767–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Metson GS, Bennett EM, Elser JJ (2012) The role of diet in phosphorus demand. Environ Res Lett 7(4):043044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seyhan D, Brunner PH (2018) The choice of system boundaries for effective long-term management of phosphorus. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 20(1):345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bringezu S, Schmütz H, Moll S (2003) Rationale for and interpretation of economy- wide materials flow analysis and derived indicators. J Ind Ecol 7(2):43–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hertwich EG, Peters GP (2009) Carbon footprint of nations: a global, trade-linked analysis. Environ Sci Technol 43(16):6414–6420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ma L, Wang F, Zhang W, Ma W, Velthof G, Qin W, Oenema O, Zhang F (2013) Environmental assessment of management options for nutrient flows in the food chain in China. Environ Sci Technol 47(13):7260–7268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seyhan D, Canli G, Akduman I, Yilmaz T (2015) Heating stove to effectively burn manure, with recycling. Pending patent. TR2015/11113, TurkeyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Demet Seyhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Istanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations