Advertisement

Damage Evolution and Local Strain Redistribution in Composite Laminate with Various Fiber Arrangements

  • Addis Tessema
  • Suraj Ravindran
  • Addis Kidane
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)

Abstract

The initiation and gradual development of damage in composites is associated with the degradation of the composite laminate properties. Understanding the characteristics of damage evolution in composite laminates has been one of the major interest in composite studies. There is a lot of progress in this regard, however still there is a lack of clear understanding on how damages are initiated, grown and transformed from one form to another. In this study experiments are conducted to capture the strain localization and cracks formation on the free-edge of composite laminates. Laminates that have a stacking arrangement of (0/−Ɵ/+Ɵ/90)s with plies that have different fiber angles (Ɵ = 15°, 30° and 45°) are manufactured. Coupon samples are made from these laminates and subjected to a uniaxial tension loading until final fracture. Using digital image correlation technique at high magnification, the local deformation field is determined. From the test, it is observed that the strain/stress response of the composite is influenced by the arrangement of the fiber angle of the off-axis plies. From the strain contours obtained on the free-edge, the gradual initiation and growth of matrix cracks is observed to be localized in the 90° plies. In addition, these matrix cracks grow and lead to cause delamination between the 90° plies and neighboring plies. The local strains in each individual ply are seen to fluctuate along with the emergence of cracks at the vicinity of the damage as a result of stress redistribution.

Keywords

Progressive damage Laminate composite Matrix cracking Free-edge Digital Image Correlation 

References

  1. 1.
    Nettles, A.T.: Basic Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates, p. 107. NASA Ref Pulication, Huntsville (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaddour, A.S., Hinton, M.J., Smith, P.A., Li, S.: A comparison between the predictive capability of matrix cracking, damage and failure criteria for fibre reinforced composite laminates: Part A of the third world-wide failure exercise. J. Compos. Mater. 47, 2749–2779 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998313499476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Talreja, R.: Assessment of the fundamentals of failure theories for composite materials. Compos. Sci. Technol. 105, 190–201 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.10.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tahani, M., Nosier, A.: Free edge stress analysis of general cross-ply composite laminates under extension and thermal loading. Compos. Struct. 60, 91–103 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8223(02)00290-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kassapoglou, C., Lagace, P.A.: An Efficient Method for the Calculation of Interlaminar Stresses in Composite Materials. J. Appl. Mech. 53, 744 (1986).  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3171853CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mittelstedt, C., Becker, W.: Free-Edge Effects in Composite Laminates. Appl. Mech. Rev. 60, 217 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2777169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murthy, P., Chamis, C.: Free-edge delamination: laminate width and loading condition effects. Nasa_Tm-100238 (1987)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nailadi, C.L., Adams, D.F., Adams, D.O.: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Free Edge Problem in Composite Laminates. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 21, 3–39 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1106/073168402024280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pagano, N.J., Pipes, R.B.: The Influence of Stacking Sequence on Laminate Strength. J. Compos. Mater. 5, 50–57 (1971).  https://doi.org/10.1177/002199837100500105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berthelot, J.-M.: Transverse cracking and delamination in cross-ply glass-fiber and carbon-fiber reinforced plastic laminates: Static and fatigue loading. Appl. Mech. Rev. 56, 111–147 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1519557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mortell, D.J., Tanner, D.A., McCarthy, C.T.: An experimental investigation into multi-scale damage progression in laminated composites in bending. Compos. Struct. 149, 33–40 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.03.054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    París, F., Blázquez, A., McCartney, L.N., Barroso, A.: Characterization and evolution of matrix and interface related damage in [0/90]S laminates under tension. Part II: Experimental evidence. Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 1176–1183 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2010.03.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tong, J., Guild, F.J., Ogin, S.L., Smith, P.A.: On matrix crack growth in quasi-isotropic laminates-I. Experimental investigation. Compos. Sci. Technol. Elsevier Sci Ltd. 57, 1527–1535 (1997).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(97)00080-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tessema A, Mymers N, Patel R, Ravindran S, Kidane A. Experimental investigation on the Correlation between Damage and Thermal Conductivity of CFRP. Proc. Am. Soc. Compos. Thirty-First Tech. Conf., (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fahem, A.F., Kidane, A.: Hybrid computational and experimental approach to identify the dynamic initiation fracture toughness at high loading rate. In: Dynamic Behavior of Materials, vol. 1, pp. 141–146. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62956-8_24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fahem, A.F., Kidane, A.: A General Approach to Evaluate the Dynamic Fracture Toughness of Materials. In: Casem, D., Lamberson, L., Kimberley, J. (eds.) Dynamic Behavior of Materials, vol. 1, pp. 185–194. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41132-3_26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tessema, A., Kidane, A.: Cross-property interaction between stiffness, damage and thermal conductivity in particulate nanocomposite. Polym. Test. 64, 127–135 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2017.09.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tessema, A., Ravindran, S., Kidane, A.: Gradual damage evolution and propagation in quasi-isotropic CFRC under quasi-static loading. Compos. Struct. 185, 186–192 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.11.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tessema, A., Ravindran, S., Kidane, A.: Experimental study of residual plastic strain and damages development in carbon fiber composite. In: Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, vol. 8, pp. 31–36. Springer, Cham (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tessema, A., Ravindran, S., Wohlford, A., Kidane, A.: In-Situ Observation of Damage Evolution in Quasi-Isotropic CFRP Laminates. In: Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, vol. 7, pp. 67–72. Springer, Cham (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tessema, A., Zhao, D., Kidane, A., Kumar, S.K.: Effect of micro-cracks on the thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposite. In: Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, vol. 8, pp. 89–94. Springer, Cham (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Addis Tessema
    • 1
  • Suraj Ravindran
    • 1
  • Addis Kidane
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations