Advertisement

Citizenship In-between: A Case Study of Tibetan Refugees in India

  • Tatsuya Yamamoto
Chapter
Part of the Human Rights Interventions book series (HURIIN)

Abstract

Yamamoto’s chapter features Tibetan refugees in India and partly in Nepal, and explores how citizenship-related issues have been causing controversies and revisions of legal interpretations and policies in regards to Tibetan refugees under a dual legal system of the Government of India and the Central Tibetan Administration since the 2010s. Yamamoto clarifies that rulings in regard to giving Indian citizenship to Tibetan refugees meeting the requirements have legally been divided between those who can be Indian citizens and others who cannot be, and been similarly making invisible the existence of “unofficial” Tibetan refugees who have been seeking Tibetan citizenship in both a material and religious sense. Yamamoto shows how the Indian legal order not only enables some Tibetan refugees in India to participate in Indian democracy as Indian citizens, but also disables other Tibetan refugees in India from being legally and officially recognized as Tibetan refugees.

Notes

Acknowledgement

I would like to especially thank Lobsang Wangyal, Thupten Tenzin and Tendar for sharing their time.

References

  1. Chatterjee, Partha. 2004. The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Childs, Geoff, and Gareth Barkin. 2006. Reproducing Identity: Using Images to Promote Pronatalism and Sexual Endogamy Among Tibetan Exiles in South Asia. Visual Anthropology Review 22 (2): 34–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clifford, James. 1997. Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Frechette, Ann. 2005. Tibetans in Nepal: The Dynamics of International Assistance among a Community in Exile. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  5. Fumanti, Mattia. 2017. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Cultural Citizenship and Migration. In The Routledge Companion to Contemporary Anthropology, ed. Simon Coleman, Susan B. Hyatt, and Ann Kingsolver, 495–511. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Jayal, Niraja Gopal. 2013. Citizenship and Its Discontents: An Indian History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Lazar, Sian. 2013. Introduction. In The Anthropology of Citizenship, ed. Sian Lazar, 1–22. Malden: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. McConnell, Fiona. 2016. Rehearsing the State: The Political Practices of the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. Malden: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. McGranahan, Carole. 2016. Refusal and the Gift of Citizenship. Cultural Anthropology 31 (3): 334–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Miedema, Siebren. 2008. Educating for Religious Citizenship: Religious Education as Identity Formation. In International Handbook of the Religious, Moral and Spiritual Dimensions in Education, ed. Marian de Souza, Kathleen Engebretson, Gloria Durka, Robert Jackson, and Andrew McGrady, 967–976. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Ong, Aiwha. 1996. Cultural Citizenship as a Subject Making: Immigrants Negotiate Racial and Cultural Boundaries in the United States. American Ethnologists 37 (5): 737–762.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1999. Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logic of Transnationality. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Sarkar, Shuvro Prosun. 2017. Refugee Law in India: The Road from Ambiguity to Protection. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Tibet Justice Center. 2016. Tibet’s Stateless Nationals III: The Status of Tibetan Refugees in India. www.tibetjustice.org

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatsuya Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Shizuoka UniversityShizuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations