The Securitization of East-European Migrants. The Occurrence of Liminal Identities in the European Union
The article starts from the premise that immigrants account for everything that is not European and brings under scrutiny the process of labor ethnicization, which has been used to create liminal identities within the European Union. The ethnicization of labor has turned Eastern Europe, where most of the immigrants have come from, into a Threatening/ Internal Significant Other of the European Union. Focusing in particular on the case of Roma immigrants, the article explains how the ethnicization of labor in Western Europe has strengthened the identity difference between pre-modern Eastern and Western Europe by presenting the former as pre-modern and the latter as post-modern. The article presents narratives that strengthened the process of labor ethnicization and, thus, laid the foundation for turning Eastern Europe into an absolute Other of the EU.
KeywordsEast-European migrants Labor ethnicization European Union
- BBC News. (2010a, September 16). Sarkozy denounces EU Commissioner’s Roma remarks. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11332189. Acessed 13 Oct 2017.
- BBC News. (2010b, September 17). EU nations and Roma repatriation. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11344313. Accessed 14 Oct 2017.
- BBC News. (2010c, September 17). Germany denies French claims over Roma camps. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11345165. Accessed 14 Oct 2017.
- Colacicchi, P. (2008). Ethnic profiling and discrimination against Roma in Italy. New developments in a deep-rooted tradition. Roma Right Journal, 2, 35–43.Google Scholar
- European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance. (2002). Second report on Italy. http://hudoc.ecri.coe.int/XMLEcri/ENGLISH/Cycle_02/02_CbC_eng/02-cbc-italy-eng.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2017.
- European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance. (2006). Third report on Italy. http://hudoc.ecri.coe.int/XMLEcri/ENGLISH/Cycle_03/03_CbC_eng/ITA-CbC-III-2006-eng.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2017.
- Herd, G. P. (Ed.). (2010). Great powers and strategic stability in the 21st century. Competing visions of world order. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kuus, M. (2007). Geopolitics reframed. Security and identity in Europe’s eastern enlargement. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship. A liberal theory of minority rights. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kymlicka, W. (2007). Multicultural odysseys. Navigating the new international politics of diversity. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Mälksoo, M. (2010). The politics of becoming European. A study of polish and Baltic post-cold war security imaginaries. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Mudde, C. (2010). On extremism and democracy in Europe. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Neumann, I. (1999). Uses of the other.“The East” in European identity formation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Petersen, A. (2011). The World Island. Eurasian geopolitics and the fate of the west. Denver: Praeger Security International.Google Scholar
- Severance, Kristi. (2010, October 21). France’s expulsion of Roma migrants. A test case for Europe. Migration Policy Institute 2010. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frances-expulsion-roma-migrants-test-case-europe. Accessed 14 Oct 2017.
- Sigana, N., & Trehan, N. (Eds.). (2009). Romani politics in contemporary Europe. Palgrave Macmillan: London.Google Scholar
- Triandafyllidou, A. (2001). Immigrants and National Identity in Europe. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Tulmets, E. (2014). East central European foreign policy identity in perspective. Back to Europe and the EU’s neighbourhood. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar