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Disorders of Calcium, Phosphorous, and Magnesium in the Newborn

  • Arielle L. Olicker
  • Avroy A. Fanaroff
  • Jonathan M. Fanaroff
Chapter

Abstract

The vast majority of calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium in the body is stored in the bone; hence these minerals are referred to as the “bone minerals.” However, a portion of each of these minerals resides in the intracellular and extracellular spaces. They have important roles in critical physiological processes, including transport across cell membranes, enzyme activation and inhibition, regulation of intracellular metabolic pathways, and secretion and activity of hormones. These minerals are also involved in protein synthesis, maintaining membrane integrity, muscle contractility, neuromuscular excitation, nerve conduction, coagulation, and energy metabolism. Additionally, phosphorous is an important constituent of nucleic acids and cell membranes.

In the normal newborn nursery, symptoms of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous abnormalities are relatively uncommon and often nonspecific; therefore it is important to recognize infants at risk for such conditions and treat them when present as the complications of such disorders can have serious consequences.

Keywords

Calcium Magnesium Phosphorous Bone minerals Hypocalcemia Hypermagnesemia 

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Abrams SA, Tiosano D. Disorders of Calcium, Phosphorous, and Magnesium Metabolism in the Neonate. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, editors. Fanaroff & Martin’s Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 1460–89.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coulter M, Colvin C, Korf B, Messiaen L, Tuanama B, Crowley M, Crossman DK, McCormick K. Hypomagnesemia due to two novel TRPM6 mutations. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;28:1373–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    García Soblechero E, Ferrer Castillo MT, Jiménez Crespo B, Domínguez Quintero ML, González FC. Neonatal hypercalcemia due to a homozygous mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor: failure of cinacalcet. Neonatology. 2013;104(2):104–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kubicka Z, Little GA. Transient Metabolic Disturbances in the Newborn. In: Campbell DE, editor. Neonatology for Primary Care. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2015. p. 491–500.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas TC, Smith JM, White PC, Adhikari S. Transient neonatal hypocalcemia: presentation and outcomes. Pediatrics. 2012;12:e1461–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arielle L. Olicker
    • 1
  • Avroy A. Fanaroff
    • 2
  • Jonathan M. Fanaroff
    • 3
  1. 1.Pediatrics, Division of NeonatologyCase Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Pediatrics, Division of NeonatologyCase Western Reserve School of Medicine and Eliza Henry Barnes Chair in Neonatology, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Pediatrics, Division of NeonatologyCase Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Rainbow Center for Pediatric Ethics, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterClevelandUSA

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