Betalains as Colorants and Pigments

  • Erum Akbar Hussain
  • Zubi Sadiq
  • Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq


Colors are the unique identification of any object. A colorant can act as either a pigment or a dye. Pigments are the chemicals that absorb light of specific wavelength and prevent certain wavelengths of light from being transmitted or reflected. They are also regarded as subtractive colors. The colors of pigments interpret in the brain by producing neural impulse when eye seizures the diverted or reflected non-engrossed energy.


  1. 1.
    Amchova, P., Kotolova, H., & Kucerova, J. R. (2015). Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 73(2), 914–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Timberlake, C. F., & Henry, S. N. (1986). Plant pigments as natural food colours. Endeavour, 10(1), 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stintzing, F. C., & Carle, R. (2004). Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants,food, and in human nutrition. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15, 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stintzing, F. C., Trichterborn, J., & Carle, R. (2004). Characterisation of anthocyanin–betalain mixtures for food colouring by chromatic and HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Food Chemistry, 94(2), 296–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramírez, E. P., Lima, E., & Guzman, A. (2015). Natural betalains supported on Y-alumina: A wide family of stable pigments. Dyes and Pigments, 120, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stintzing, F. C., Herbach, K. M., Mosshammer, M. R., Carle, R., Yi, W., Sellappan, S., & Felker, P. (2005). Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(2), 442–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Simon, P., Drdak, M., & Altamirano, R. C. (1993). Influence of water activity on the stability of betanin in various water/alcohol model systems. Food Chemistry, 46, 155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guesmi, A., Ladhari, N., Ben Hamadi, N., Msaddek, M. M., & Sakli, F. (2013). First application of chlorophyll-a as biomordant: Sonicator dyeing of pool with betanin dye. Journal of Cleaner Production, 39, 97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khan, M. H. (2015). Stabilization of betalains, a review. Food Chemistry, 197, 1280–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wrolstad, R. E., FRANCIS, F., & LAURO, G. (2000). Natural food colorants. Science and technology (p. 237). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc..Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vargas, F. D., Jiménez, A. R., & López, O. P. (2000). Natural pigments: Carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 40(3), 173–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suh, D. H., Lee, S., Heo, D. Y., Kim, Y. S., Cho, S. K., Lee, S., & Lee, C. H. (2014). Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) for comparing betalain biosynthesis and antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(34), 8764–8771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang, A. S., & von Elbe, J. H. (1987). Effect of pH on the degradation and regeneration of betanine. Journal of Food Science, 52, 1689–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huang, A. S., & von Elbe, J. H. (1985). Kinetics of the degradation and regeneration of betanine. Journal of Food Science, 50, 1115–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Counsell, J. N., Jeffries, G. S., & Knewstubb, C. J. (1979). Some other natural colors and their applications. Applied Science London, 2, 122–151.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee, Y. N., Wiley, R. C., Sheu, M. J., & Schlimme, D. V. (1982). Purification and concentration of betalains by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. Journal of Food Science, 47(2), 465–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matsuda, N., Tsuchiya, T., Kishitani, S., Tanaka, Y., & Toriyama, K. (1996). Partial male sterility in transgenic tobacco carrying antisense and sense PAL cDNA under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter. Plant Cell Physiology, 37(2), 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiley, R. C., Lee, Y. N., Saladini, J. J., Wyss, R. C., & Topalian, H. H. (1979). Efficiency studies of a continuous diffusion apparatus for the recovery of betalaines from red table beet. Journal of Food Science, 44(1), 208–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Von Elbe, J. H., & Furia, E. T. (1977). The betalaines current aspects of food colorants (pp. 29–39). Boca Raton: CRC Press Inc.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kino-Oka, M., & Tone, S. (1996). Extracellular production of pigment from red beet hairy roots accompanied by oxygen preservation. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 29(3), 488–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erum Akbar Hussain
    • 1
  • Zubi Sadiq
    • 1
  • Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq
    • 1
  1. 1.Lahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations