Advertisement

Deliberative Democracy in Dark Times

  • Nicole Curato
  • Marit Hammond
  • John B. Min
Chapter
Part of the Political Philosophy and Public Purpose book series (POPHPUPU)

Abstract

This final substantive chapter extends the discussion of deliberative democracy and power by focusing on three topics that have shaped contemporary thinking about the pathologies of democracy—post-truth, populism, and illiberalism. The chapter concludes with questions often raised but as yet unanswered in deliberative theory: What is its account of change? How does it take power? The chapter makes a case for a humble version of deliberative theory, one that does not hoist a flag declaring mission accomplished, but one that constantly evolves because it learns from its mistakes.

References

  1. Akhavan-Majid, Roya, and Jyotika Ramaprasad. 1998. Framing and Ideology: A Comparative Analysis of US and Chinese Newspaper Coverage of the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women and the NGO Forum. Mass Communication and Society 1 (3–4): 131–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arditi, Benjamin. 2007. Politics on the Edges of Liberalism: Difference, Populism, Revolution, Agitation. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arendt, Hannah. 1967. Truth and Politics. New Yorker, February 25.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2018. In Thinking Without a Banister: Essays in Understanding, 1953–1975, ed. Jerome Kohn. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  5. Barany, Zoltan. 2018. Burma: Suu Kyi’s Missteps. Journal of Democracy 29 (1): 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benhabib, Seyla. 2007. Another Universalism: On the Unity and Diversity of Human Rights. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 81 (2): 7–32.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2011. Dignity in Adversity: Human Rights in Troubled Times. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2013. Reason-giving and Rights-bearing: Constructing the Subject of Rights. Constellations 20 (1): 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bevir, Mark. 2006. Democratic Governance: Systems and Radical Perspectives. Public Administration Review 66 (3): 426–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bohman, James. 2007. Democracy Across Borders. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 1999. Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan042931~1.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  12. Boykoff, Maxwell. 2013. Public Enemy No. 1?: Understanding Media Representations of Outlier Views on Climate Change. American Behavioral Scientist 57 (6): 796–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruni, Frank. 2018. Donald Trump’s Radical Honesty. New York Times, January 19. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/19/opinion/sunday/donald-trump-lies-honesty.html. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  14. Buxton, Julia. 2018. The Failure of Political Reform in Venezuela. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cannon, Barry. 2004. Venezuela, April 2002: Coup or Popular Rebellion? The Myth of a United Venezuela. Bulletin of Latin American Research 23 (3): 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Canovan, Margaret. 1999. Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies 47 (1): 2–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chambers, Simone. 2017. Balancing Epistemic Quality and Equal Participation in a System Approach to Deliberative Democracy. Social Epistemology 31 (3): 266–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christiano, Thomas. 2012. Rational Deliberation Among Experts and Citizens. In Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale, ed. John Parkinson and Jane Mansbridge, 27–51. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clinton, Hillary Rodham. 1996. Women’s Rights are Human Rights. Women Studies’ Quarterly 24 (1/2): 98–101.Google Scholar
  20. Corrales, Javier. 2006. Hugo Boss. Foreign Policy, February 19. http://foreignpolicy.com/2006/02/19/hugo-boss/. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  21. Curato, Nicole. 2014. Participation Without Deliberation: The Crisis of Venezuelan Democracy. Democratic Theory 1 (2): 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ———. 2016. Politics of Anxiety, Politics of Hope: Penal Populism and Duterte’s Rise to Power. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 35 (3): 91–109.Google Scholar
  23. Cushman, Thomas. 2005. The Human Rights Case for the War in Iraq: A Consequentialist View. In Human Rights in the ‘War on Terror’, ed. Richard Ashby Wilson, 78–107. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dachevsky, Fernando, and Juan Kornblihtt. 2017. The Reproduction and Crisis of Capitalism in Venezuela under Chavismo. Latin American Perspectives 44 (1): 78–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, Michael, and Michael Ferrantino. 1996. Towards a Positive Theory of Political Rhetoric: Why Do Politicians Lie? Public Choice 88 (1–2): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De la Torre, Carlos. 2007. The Resurgence of Radical Populism in Latin America. Constellations 14 (3): 384–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Debord, Guy. 1970. Society of the Spectacle. Michigan: Black & Red.Google Scholar
  28. Deveaux, Monique. 2003. A Deliberative Approach to Conflicts of Culture. Political Theory 31 (6): 780–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dowd, Maureen. 2016. The Year of Voting Dangerously: The Derangement of American Politics. New York: Grand Central Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Dryzek, John. 2010. Rhetoric in Democracy: A Systemic Appreciation. Political Theory 38 (3): 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duca, Lauren. 2016. Donald Trump is Gaslighting America. Teen Vogue, December 10. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/donald-trump-is-gaslighting-america. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  32. Elsasser, Shaun, and Riley Dunlap. 2013. Leading Voices in the Denier Choir: Conservative Columnists’ Dismissal of Global Warming and Denigration of Climate Science. American Behavioral Scientist 57 (6): 754–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elster, Jon. 1998. Introduction. In Deliberative Democracy, ed. Jon Elster, 1–18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fischer, Frank. 2009. Democracy and Expertise: Reorienting Policy Inquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freedom House. 2018. Freedom in the World. https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FH_FITW_Report_2018_Final_SinglePage.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  36. Fukuyama, Francis. 1989. The End of History? The National Interest Summer 1989: 1–18.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 1992. The End of History. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gregg, Benjamin. 2012. Human Rights as Social Constructionism. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Guilhot, Nicolas. 2005. The Democracy Makers: Human Rights and International Order. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haberman, Clyde. 2015. A Discredited Vaccine Study’s Continuing Impact on Public Health. New York Times, February 1. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/02/us/a-discredited-vaccine-studys-continuing-impact-on-public-health.html. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  41. Habermas, Jürgen. 1983. Theory of Communicative Action. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  42. ———. 1991. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hadiz, Vedi. 2017. Indonesia’s Year of Democratic Setbacks: Towards a New Phase of Deepening Illiberalism? Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 53 (3): 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hafner-Burton, Emilie, and Kiyoteru Tsutsui. 2005. Human Rights in a Globalizing World: The Paradox of Empty Promises. American Journal of Sociology 110 (5): 1373–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. ———. 2007. Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law to Matter Where Needed Most. Journal of Peace Research 44 (4): 407–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hahl, Oliver, Minjae Kim, and Ezra Zuckerman Sivan. 2018. The Authentic Appeal of the Lying Demagogue: Proclaiming the Deeper Truth about Political Illegitimacy. American Sociological Review 83 (1): 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hanson, Paul. 2016. Transcript: Pauline Hanson’s 2016 Maiden Speech to the Senate. ABC News, September 15. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-09-15/pauline-hanson-maiden-speech-2016/7847136. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  48. Hawkins, Kirk. 2010. Who Mobilizes? Participatory Democracy in Chávez’s Bolivarian Revolution. Latin American Politics and Society 52 (3): 31–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hilleary, Cecily. 2014. Are Race and Class at the Root of Venezuela’s Political Crisis? VOA News, April 6. https://www.voanews.com/a/are-race-and-class-at-the-root-of-venezuelas-political-crisis/1886458.html. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  50. Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 2016. Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  51. Hopgood, Stephen. 2013. The Endtimes of Human Rights. Redwood City: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Ignatieff, Michael. 2001. The Attack on Human Rights. Foreign Affairs 80 (6): 102–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Illing, Sean. 2017. Fareed Zakaria Made a Scary Prediction About Democracy in 1997—and It’s Coming True. Vox, July 4. https://www.vox.com/conversations/2017/1/18/14250364/democracy-liberalism-donald-trump-populism-fareed-zakaria-europe-fascism. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  54. Innes, Abby. 2015. Hungary’s Illiberal Democracy. Current History 114 (770): 95–110.Google Scholar
  55. Isaac, Jeffrey. 1994. Democracy in Dark Times. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Isenberg, Nancy. 2017. White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America. London: Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  57. Ishay, Micheline. 2004. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  58. Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira. 2012. The Ambivalence of Populism: Threat and Corrective for Democracy. Democratization 19 (2): 184–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Karush, Matthew, and Oscar Chamosa. 2010. The New Cultural History of Peronism: Power and Identity in Mid-Twentieth-Century Argentina. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keane, John. 2009. The Life and Death of Democracy. London: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  61. ———. Forthcoming. Humbling Power: Monitory Democracy and its Future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Kellner, Douglas. 2003. Media Spectacle. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. ———. 2009. Media Spectacle and Media Events: Some Critical Reflections. https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/essays/2009_Kellner_MediaEventsJulyFINAL.pdf. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  64. Kusaka, Wataru. 2017. Moral Politics in the Philippines: Inequality, Democracy and the Urban Poor. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.Google Scholar
  65. Laclau, Ernesto. 2005. On Populist Reason. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  66. Laurie, Nina, Robert Andolina, and Sarah Radcliffe. 2005. Ethnodevelopment: Social Movements, Creating Experts and Professionalising Indigenous Knowledge in Ecuador. Antipode 37 (3): 470–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leonhardt, David, and Stuart A. Thompson. 2017. Trump’s Lies. New York Times, December 14. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/06/23/opinion/trumps-lies.html. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  68. Lyon, Arabella. 2013. Deliberative Acts: Democracy, Rhetoric, and Rights. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  69. McGranahan, Carole. 2017. An Anthropology of Lying: Trump and the Political Sociality of Moral Outrage. American Ethnologist 44 (2): 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mechkova, Valeriya, Anna Lührmann, and Staffan Lindberg. 2017. How Much Democratic Backsliding? Journal of Democracy 28 (4): 162–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Merry, Sally Engle. 2006. Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  72. Mihailidis, Paul, and Samantha Viotty. 2017. Spreadable Spectacle in Digital Culture: Civic Expression, Fake News, and the Role of Media Literacies in ‘Post-Fact’ Society. American Behavioral Scientist 61 (4): 441–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Milewicz, Karolina, and Robert Goodin. 2016. Deliberative Capacity Building through International Organizations: The Case of the Universal Periodic Review of Human Rights. British Journal of Political Science 48 (2): 513–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Min, John B., and James K. Wong. 2018. Epistemic Approaches to Deliberative Democracy. Philosophy Compass 13 (6): e12497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moffitt, Benjamin. 2016. The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style, and Representation. Redwood City: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Moffitt, Benjamin, and Simon Tormey. 2014. Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style. Political Studies 62 (2): 381–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Monod, Jean-Claude. 2017. Between Post-Truth and Epistemocracy: Positioning a Democratic Politics. Eurozine, September 27. https://www.eurozine.com/between-post-truth-and-epistemocracy-positioning-a-democratic-politics/. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  78. Moore, Alfred. 2016. Deliberative Elitism? Distributed Deliberation and the Organization of Epistemic Inequality. Critical Policy Studies 10 (2): 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mouffe, Chantal. 2005. The Return of the Political. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  80. Muirhead, Russell. 2014. The Politics of Getting It Right. Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 26 (1–2): 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murdock, Graham. 2018. Refeudalisation Revisited: The Destruction of Deliberative Democracy. Javnost: The Public 5 (1–2): 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Myers, David. 2004. The Normalization of Punto Fijo Democracy. In The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela, ed. Jennifer McCoy and David Myers, 11–32. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Nash, June. 1996. Religious Rituals of Resistance and Class Consciousness in Bolivian Tin-Mining Communities. In Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social Movement Activism, ed. Christian Smith, 87–102. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Nash, Kate. 2009. Between Citizenship and Human Rights. Sociology 43 (6): 1067–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nasir, Kamaludeen Mohamed. 2015. The September 11 Generation, Hip-hop and Human Rights. Journal of Sociology 51 (4): 1039–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, Walter Arnold Kaufmann, and R.J. Hollingdale. 1968. The Will to Power. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  87. O’Flynn, Ian, and Nicole Curato. 2015. Deliberative Democratization: A Framework for Systemic Analysis. Policy Studies 36 (3): 298–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ong, Jonathan Corpus, and Jason Vincent Cabañes. 2018. Architects of Networked Disinformation: Behind the Scenes of Troll Accounts and Fake News Production in the Philippines. Newton Tech4Dev Network. http://newtontechfordev.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ARCHITECTS-OF-NETWORKED-DISINFORMATION-FULL-REPORT.pdf. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  89. Orbán, Viktor. 2014. Full Text of Viktor Orbán’s Speech at Băile Tuşnad (Tusnádfürdő) of 26 July 2014. The Budapest Beacon, July 29. https://budapestbeacon.com/full-text-of-viktor-orbans-speech-at-baile-tusnad-tusnadfurdo-of-26-july-2014/. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  90. Osa, Maryjane. 1996. Pastoral Mobilization and Contention: The Religious Foundations of the Solidarity Movement in Poland. In Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social-Movement Activism, ed. Christian Smith, 67–86. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. Ostiguy, Pierre. 2015. Antagonism, Identification and Performativity in Populism: From the Empty Signifier to Bodily “Excesses,” Published in Spanish as “Gramáticas plebeyas: Exceso, representación y fronteras porosas en el populismo oficialista.” Pp. 133–178 in Gramaticas Plebeyas: Populismo, democracia y nuevas izquierdas en América Latina. Ediciones. Edited by Claudio Veliz and Ariana Riano. UNGS (Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento) y Ediciones UNDAV (Univ Nacional de Avellaneda).Google Scholar
  92. ———. 2017. Populism: A Socio-cultural Approach. In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo, and Pierre Ostiguy, 73–100. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Oxford English Dictionary. 2016. Post-truth. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/post-truth. Accessed 4 May 2018.
  94. Pangle, Thomas. 2009. The Morality of Exporting Democracy: A Historical–philosophical Perspective. In Is Democracy Exportable? ed. Zoltan Barany and Robert G. Mose, 15–34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Puddington, Arch, and Tyler Roylance. 2016. The Freedom House Survey for 2015: Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democrats. Journal of Democracy 27 (2): 86–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. ———. 2017. The Freedom House Survey for 2016: The Dual Threat of Populists and Autocrats. Journal of Democracy 28 (2): 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Purcell, Mary. 2014. Why Was the 1995 Beijing Conference for Women Groundbreaking? Read a Firsthand Account.” AAUW, August 20. https://www.aauw.org/2014/08/20/1995-beijing/. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  98. Reuters. 2012. Factbox: Venezuela’s Nationalizations Under Chavez. October 8. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-election-nationalizations/factbox-venezuelas-nationalizations-under-chavez-idUSBRE89701X20121008. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  99. Reyes, Danilo Andres. 2016. The Spectacle of Violence in Duterte’s ‘War on Drugs. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 35 (3): 111–137.Google Scholar
  100. Roberts, Kenneth. 2006. Populism, Political Conflict, and Grass-roots Organization in Latin America. Comparative Politics 38 (2): 127–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rupnik, Jacques. 2012. Hungary’s Illiberal Turn: How Things Went Wrong. Journal of Democracy 23 (3): 132–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schaffer, Frederick. 2002. Disciplinary Reactions: Alienation and the Reform of Vote Buying in the Philippines. Paper delivered at “Trading Political Rights: The Comparative Politics of Vote Buying” International Conference, Centre for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. August 26–27. http://web.mit.edu/CIS/pdf/Schaffer%20-%20Disciplinary%20Reactions.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2018.
  103. Sen, Amartya. 2004. Elements of a Theory of Human Rights. Philosophy & Public Affairs 32 (4): 315–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Silverman, Craig. 2015. Lies, Damn Lies, and Viral Content: How News Websites Spread (And Debunk) Online Rumors, Unverified Claims, And Misinformation. New York: Tow Center for Digital Journalism.Google Scholar
  105. Simangan, Dahlia. 2017. Is the Philippine ‘War on Drugs’ an Act of Genocide? Journal of Genocide Research 20 (1): 68–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sjoberg, Gideon, Elizabeth Gill, and Norma Williams. 2001. A Sociology of Human Rights. Social Problems 48 (1): 11–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Slotte, Pamela, and Miia Halme-Tuomisaari, eds. 2015. Revisiting the Origins of Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Smith, Naomi, and Tim Graham. 2017. Mapping the Anti-vaccination Movement on Facebook. Information, Communication & Society. First published December 27, 2017.Google Scholar
  109. Stammers, Neil. 1999. Social Movements and the Social Construction of Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly 21: 980–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stanley, Jason. 2015. How Propaganda Works. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. ———. 2018. How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them. New York: Penguin Random House.Google Scholar
  112. Stanley, Jason, and John B. Min. 2018. Propaganda’s Role in Liberal Democratic Societies. Democratic Theory 5 (1): 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Taylor, Charles. 1999. Conditions of an Unforced Consensus on Human Rights. In The Politics of Human Rights, ed. Obrad Savić, 101–119. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  114. Thompson, Mark. 2001. Whatever Happened to ‘Asian Values’? Journal of Democracy 12 (4): 154–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tormey, Simon. 2017. Is Populism Democracy’s Deadly Cure?” The Conversation, September 21. https://theconversation.com/is-populism-democracys-deadly-cure-82592. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  116. Türk, H. Bahadir. 2018. ‘Populism as a Medium of Mass Mobilization’: The Case of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. International Area Studies Review. First published March 27, 2018.Google Scholar
  117. UN Women. 1995. Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: Beijing+5 Political Declaration and Outcome. New York: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.Google Scholar
  118. Urbinati, Nadia. 2010. Unpolitical Democracy. Political Theory 38 (1): 65–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. ———. 2014. Democracy Disfigured. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vance, James David. 2016. Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.Google Scholar
  121. Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral. 2018. The Spread of True and False News Online. Science 359 (6380): 1146–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Walker, Andrew. 2008. The Rural Constitution and the Everyday Politics of Elections in Northern Thailand. Journal of Contemporary Asia 38 (1): 84–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. West, John. 2016. How Hot Takes Drowned Out Journalism and Ruined Our Facebook Feeds.” Quartz, March 29. https://qz.com/649210/how-hot-takes-drowned-out-journalism-and-ruined-our-facebook-feeds/. Accessed 22 April 2018.
  124. Zakaria, Fareed. 1997. The Rise of Illiberal Democracy. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1997-11-01/rise-illiberal-democracy. Accessed 22 April 2018.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Curato
    • 1
  • Marit Hammond
    • 2
  • John B. Min
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Deliberative Democracy and Global GovernanceUniversity of CanberraCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.School of Politics, Philosophy, International Relations and EnvironmentKeele UniversityKeeleUK
  3. 3.Department of Social Sciences – Philosophy ProgramCollege of Southern NevadaNorth Las VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations