The Praxis of Design: Framing, Making, Doing, and Defining

  • Wayne C. Chung


The Design Praxis Matrix recognizes that the design process is a highly iterative combination of varied activities and outputs. Developed to explicitly recognize the nonlinear progression typically portrayed, the Design Praxis Matrix is both a tool for education and reflection. A framework that uses Tangible and Intangible Activities and Outputs has been used to describe the conceptual behaviors and outcomes conducted in project-based learning challenges. These include Framing, Making, Doing, and Defining. Subsequently, as the design process is uniquely generative in nature, a resulting mindset to identify and synthesize high-level concepts to more detailed design specific issues is part of the natural designer and engineer workflow.


Design praxis Design matrix Design thinking Design process Tactical and strategic design 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne C. Chung
    • 1
  1. 1.School of DesignCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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