Recipient Vessels

  • Hisham Fansa
  • Christoph Heitmann


Proper recipient vessels are one prerequisite for free flaps. Standard recipient vessels are nowadays the internal mammary artery (IMA) and internal mammary vein (IMV). In the following we will use IMA even if we mean both artery and vein. The perforators from the IMA (IMAP) are also artery and vein, sometimes also a nerve.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisham Fansa
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christoph Heitmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeryKlinikum BielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Breast SurgeryMunichGermany
  3. 3.Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Breast SurgeryZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Practice for Plastic SurgeryMunichGermany

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