Mastectomy has become less invasive. The radical mastectomy published by William Halsted in1894 included resection of skin, gland, the pectoral muscles and axillary lymph nodes en bloc. This approach was partially due to the late and extensive stages of the disease. Nowadays most mastectomies are performed as nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM), leaving the skin and the nipple intact. It was shown that the risk for recurrence is not much increased in the right indications. Skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomies (SSM and NSM) have shifted the paradigm in breast reconstruction. Leaving the skin intact requires a primary reconstruction and involves the plastic surgeon early in the surgical and oncological concept.
- 1.Bostwick J. Prophylactic (risk-reducing) mastectomy and reconstruction. In: Plastic and reconstructive breast surgery, vol. II. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1990. p. 1369–73.Google Scholar
- 6.Jakub JW, Peled AW, Gray RJ, Greenup RA, Kiluk JV, Sacchini V, McLaughlin SA, Tchou JC, Vierkant RA, Degnim AC, Willey S. Oncologic safety of prophylactic nipple-sparing mastectomy in a population with BRCA mutations: a multi-institutional study. JAMA Surg. 2017:123. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2017.3422.
- 9.Marta GN, Poortmans P, de Barros AC, Filassi JR, Freitas Junior R, Audisio RA, Mano MS, Meterissian S, DeSnyder SM, Buchholz TA, Hijal T. Multidisciplinary international survey of post-operative radiation therapy practices after nipple-sparing or skin-sparing mastectomy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;S0748-7983(17):30704–7.Google Scholar
- 10.Meijers-Heijboer H, van Geel B, van Putten WLJ, Henzen-Logmans SC, Seynaeve C, Menke-Pluymers MBE, Bartels CCM, Verhoog LC, van den Ouweland AMW, Niermeijer MF, Brekelmans CTM, Klijn JGM. Breast cancer after prophylactic bilateral mastectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:159–64. 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Mota BS, Riera R, Ricci MD, Barrett J, de Castria TB, Atallah ÁN, Bevilacqua JLB. Nipple- and areola-sparing mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;11. Art. No.: CD008932. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008932.pub3.
- 13.van Verschuer VM, Mureau MA, Gopie JP, Vos EL, Verhoef C, Menke-Pluijmers MB, Koppert LB. Patient satisfaction and nipple-areola sensitivity after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate implant breast reconstruction in a high breast cancer risk population: nipple-sparing mastectomy versus skin-sparing mastectomy. Ann Plast Surg. 2016;77:145–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar