Reconstruction of the Nipple Areola Complex (NAC)

  • Hisham Fansa
  • Christoph Heitmann


The reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) should be the last step in breast reconstruction. Asymmetric placement can affect the aesthetic result. Therefore, reconstruction should only be performed in exceptional cases during the volume reconstruction. In the case of bilateral reconstructions, the nipple reconstruction should also be performed on one side at most during the volume reconstruction. Whether a NAK reconstruction is to be carried out is determined by the patient. The ideal time is 3–6 months after completion of the volume reconstruction.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisham Fansa
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christoph Heitmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeryKlinikum BielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Breast SurgeryMunichGermany
  3. 3.Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Breast SurgeryZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Practice for Plastic SurgeryMunichGermany

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