Surgical Anatomy

  • Hisham Fansa
  • Christoph Heitmann


The female breast has three functions: (1) the “technical” function is production of breast milk to allow breastfeeding. (2) In our society the breast also defines femininity; and in the opposite gynaecomastia is regarded as undesirable. (3) Aesthetic function of the breast always also includes symmetry of the breasts.


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    Würinger E, Mader N, Posch E, Holle J. Nerve and vessel supplying ligamentous suspension of the mammary gland. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;101:1486–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisham Fansa
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christoph Heitmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeryKlinikum BielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Breast SurgeryMunichGermany
  3. 3.Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Breast SurgeryZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Practice for Plastic SurgeryMunichGermany

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