Dreams and Mental Disorders

  • Michael Schredl


Is the dreamer with his or her bizarre dream worlds a “normal” madman at night? On the other hand, how is dreaming affected by the presence of a mental disorder like depression or schizophrenia? The findings clearly indicate that the waking-life symptoms of the patients show up in their dreams like negatively toned dream in depressed patients or bizarre dreams in patients with schizophrenia. Also in patients with sleep disorders (insomnia, narcolepsy) dreaming is altered.


  1. Amara, A. W., & Maddox, M. H. (2017). Epidemiology of sleep medicine. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (6th ed., pp. 627–637). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2014). The international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-3). Darien: AASM.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anelli, M. M., Fantini, M., Erzegovesi, S., Bellodi, L., & Ferini-Strambi, L. (2007). Dreams and sleep pattern in women with bulimia nervosa. Sleep Supplement, 30, A381–A382.Google Scholar
  5. Armitage, R., Rochlen, A., Fitch, T., Trivedi, M., & Rush, A. J. (1995). Dream recall and major depression: A preliminary report. Dreaming, 5, 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beauchemin, K. M., & Hays, P. (1995). Prevailing mood, mood changes and dreams in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 35, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beauchemin, K. M., & Hays, P. (1996). Dreaming away depression: The role of REM sleep and dreaming in affective disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 41, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., & Hurvich, M. S. (1959). Psychological correlates of depression: I. Frequency of “masochistic” dream content in a private practice sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1, 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T., & Ward, C. H. (1961). Dreams of depressed patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 5, 462–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boerner, J. (1855). Das Alpdrücken: Seine Begründung und Verhütung. Würzburg: Carl Joseph Becker.Google Scholar
  11. Brink, S. M., & Allan, J. A. B. (1992). Dreams of anorexic and bulimic women: A research study. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 37, 275–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brink, S. M., Allan, J. A., & Boldt, W. (1995). Symbolic representation of psychological states in the dream of women with eating disorders. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 29, 332–344.Google Scholar
  13. Carrasco, E., Santamaria, J., Iranzo, A., Pintor, L., De Pablo, J., Solanas, A., Kumru, H., Martinez-Rodrigez, J. E., & Boget, T. (2006). Changes in dreaming induced by CPAP in severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Journal of Sleep Research, 15, 430–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Agostino, A., Manni, R., Limosani, I., Terzaghi, M., Cavallotti, S., & Scarone, S. (2012). Challenging the myth of REM sleep behavior disorder: No evidence of heightened aggressiveness in dreams. Sleep Medicine, 13(6), 714–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Agostino, A., Aletti, G., Carboni, M., Cavallotti, S., Limosani, I., Manzone, M., & Scarone, S. (2013). Are delusional contents replayed during dreams? Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3), 708–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Groen, J. H. M., Op den Velde, W., Hovens, J. E., Falger, P. R., Schouten, E. G. W., & van Duijn, H. (1993). Snoring and anxiety dreams. Sleep, 16, 35–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dippel, B., Lauer, C., Riemann, D., Majer-Trendel, K., Krieg, J.-C., & Berger, M. (1987). Sleep and dreams in eating disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 48, 165–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dodet, P., Chavez, M., Leu-Semenescu, S., Golmard, J.-L., & Arnulf, I. (2015). Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. Sleep, 38(3), 487–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eigel, H. S. (1965). Die Träume der Manisch-Depressiven. Medizinische Dissertation, Universität München.Google Scholar
  20. Ermann, M. (1995). Die Traumerinnerung bei Patienten mit psychogenen Schlafstörungen: Empirische Befunde und einige Folgerungen für das Verständnis des Träumens. In W. Leuschner & S. Hau (Eds.), Traum und Gedächtnis: Neue Ergebnisse aus psychologischer, psychoanalytischer und neurophysiologischer Forschung (pp. 165–186). Münster: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Fantini, M. L., & Ferini-Strambi, L. (2012). Dream content in RBD: Effect of clonazepam. Sleep Medicine, 13, 1110–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fantini, M. L., Corona, A., Clerici, S., & Ferini-Strambi, L. (2005). Aggressive dream content without daytime aggressiveness in REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology, 65, 1010–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiedler, K., & Hütter, M. (2014). Memory and emotion. In T. J. Perfect & D. S. Lindsay (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of applied memory (pp. 145–161). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fisher, S., Lewis, K. E., Bartle, I., Ghosal, R., Davies, L., & Blagrove, M. (2011). Emotional content of dreams in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients and sleepy snorers attending a sleep-disordered breathing clinic. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7, 69–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Frayn, D. H. (1991). The incidence and significance of perceptual qualities in the reported dreams of patients with anorexia nervosa. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 517–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Freedman, N. (2017). Positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (6th ed., pp. 1125–1137). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Giordano, P. L., & Spoto, G. (1977). Patient’s reports of their own sleep and dream experience in psychopharmacological sleep research and treatment. Activitas Nervose Superior, 19(Supplement 2), 370.Google Scholar
  28. Glucksman, M. L., & Kramer, M. (2017). Manifest dream content as a predictor of suicidality. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 45(2), 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Godin, I., Montplaisir, J., Gagnon, J.-F., & Nielsen, T. (2013). Alexithymia associated with nightmare distress in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Research, 36(12), 1957–1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Godin, I., Montplaisir, J., & Nielsen, T. (2015). Dreaming and nightmares in REM sleep behavior disorder. Dreaming, 25(4), 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gross, M., & Lavie, P. (1994). Dreams in sleep apnea patients. Dreaming, 4, 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hauri, P. (1976). Dreams in patients remitted from reactive depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herlin, B., Leu-Semenescu, S., Chaumereuil, C., & Arnulf, I. (2015). Evidence that non-dreamers do dream: A REM sleep behaviour disorder model. Journal of Sleep Research, 24(6), 602–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hobson, J. A. (1997). Dreaming as delirium: A mental status examination of our nightly madness. Seminars in Neurology, 17, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jackson, C., Beumont, P. J., Thornton, C., & Lennerts, W. (1993). Dreams of death: Von Weizäcker’s dreams in so-called endogeneous anorexia: A research note. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13, 329–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jouvet, M. (1999). The paradox of sleep – The story of dreaming. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Krakow, B., & Zadra, A. L. (2010). Imagery rehearsal therapy: Principles and practice. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5, 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kramer, M. (2000). Dreams and psychopathology. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (pp. 511–519). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  39. Kramer, M. (2010). Dream differences in psychiatric patients. In S. R. Pandi-Perumal & M. Kramer (Eds.), Sleep and mental illness (pp. 375–382). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kramer, M., & Nuhic, Z. (2007). A review of dreaming by psychiatric patients: An update. In S. Pandi, R. Ruoti, & M. Kramer (Eds.), Sleep and psychosomatic medicine (pp. 137–155). New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  41. Kramer, M., & Roth, T. (1973). A comparison of dream content in laboratory dream reports of schizophrenic and depressed patient groups. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 14, 325–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kramer, M., & Roth, T. (1978). Dreams in psychopathologic patient groups. In R. L. Williams & I. Karacan (Eds.), Sleep disorders: Diagnosis and treatment (pp. 323–349). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Kramer, M., Whitman, R. M., Baldridge, B. J., & Ornstein, P. H. (1968). Drugs and dreams: III. The effects of imipramine on the dreams of the depressed. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 1385–1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leclair-Visonneau, L., Oudiette, D., Gaymard, B., Leu-Semenescu, S., & Arnulf, I. (2010). Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model. Brain, 133, 1737–1746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Levin, R., & Nielsen, T. A. (2007). Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: A review and neurocognitive model. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 482–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li, S. X., Lam, S. P., Zhang, J., Yu, M. W. M., Chan, J. W. Y., Chan, C. S. Y., Espie, C. A., Freeman, D., Mason, O., & Wing, Y.-K. (2016). Sleep disturbances and suicide risk in an 8-year longitudinal study of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Sleep, 39(6), 1275–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Limosani, I., D’Agostino, A., Manzone, M. L., & Scarone, S. (2011). Bizarreness in dream reports and waking fantasies of psychotic schizophrenic and manic patients: Empirical evidences and theoretical consequences. Psychiatry Research, 189(2), 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lusignan, F.-A., Zadra, A. L., Dubuc, M.-J., Daoust, A.-M., Mottard, J.-P., & Godbout, R. (2009). Dream content in chronically-treated persons with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 112, 164–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacFarlane, J. G., & Wilson, T. L. (2006). A relationship between nightmare content and somatic stimuli in a sleep-disordered population: A preliminary study. Dreaming, 16, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mayer, G., Kesper, K., Peter, H., Ploch, T., Leinweber, T., & Peter, J.-H. (2002). Untersuchung zur Komorbidität bei Narkolepsiepatienten. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 127, 1942–1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mazzetti, M., Bellucci, C., Mattarozzi, K., Plazzi, G., Tuozzi, G., & Cipolli, C. (2010). REM-dreams recall in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Brain Research Bulletin, 81, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mellen, R. R., Duffey, T. H., & Craig, S. M. (1993). Manifest content in the dreams of clinical populations. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 15, 170–183.Google Scholar
  53. Michels, F., Schilling, C., Rausch, F., Eifler, S., Zink, M., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., & Schredl, M. (2014). Nightmare frequency in schizophrenic patients, healthy relatives of schizophrenic patients, patients at high risk states for psychosis, and healthy controls. International Journal of Dream Research, 5, 9–13.Google Scholar
  54. Mignot, E. (2017). Narcolepsy: Genetics, immunology, and pathophysiology. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (6th ed., pp. 855–872). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mota, N. B., Vasconcelos, N. A. P., Lemos, N., Pieretti, A. C., Kinouchi, O., Cecchi, G. A., Copelli, M., & Ribeiro, S. (2012). Speech graphs provide a quantitative measure of thought disorder in psychosis. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e34928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mota, N. B., Furtado, R., Maia, P. P. C., Copelli, M., & Ribeiro, S. (2014). Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis. Scientific Reports, 4(3691), 1–7.Google Scholar
  57. Nadorff, M. R., Nazem, S., & Fiske, A. (2013). Insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and suicide risk: Duration of sleep disturbance matters. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43(2), 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nixon, O. L., Pierce, C. M., Lester, B. K., & Matthis, J. L. (1964). Narcolepsy: Nocturnal dream frequency in adolescents. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 5, 150–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Noble, D. (1950). A study of dreams in schizophrenia and allied states. American Journal of Psychiatry, 107, 612–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Noreika, V., Valli, K., Markkula, J., Seppälä, K., & Revonsuo, A. (2010). Dream bizarreness and waking thought in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 178(3), 562–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ohayon, M. M., Morselli, P. L., & Guilleminault, C. (1997). Prevalence of nightmares and their relationship to psychopathology and daytime functioning in insomnia subjects. Sleep, 20, 340–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Okorome Mume, C. (2009). Nightmare in schizophrenic and depressed patients. European Journal of Psychiatry, 23, 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ornstein, P. H., Whitman, R. M., Kramer, M., & Baldridge, B. J. (1969). Drugs and dreams IV: Tranquilizer and their effects upon dreams and dreaming in schizophrenic patients. Experimental Medicine and Surgery, 27, 145–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pagel, J. F., & Helfter, P. (2003). Drug induced nightmares – An etiology based review. Human Psychopharmacology, 18, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pagel, J. F., & Shocknesse, S. (2007). Dreaming and insomnia: Polysomnographic correlates of reported dream recall frequency. Dreaming, 17, 140–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pérusse, A. D., De Koninck, J., Pedneault-Drolet, M., Ellis, J. G., & Bastien, C. H. (2016). REM dream activity of insomnia sufferers: A systematic comparison with good sleepers. Sleep Medicine, 20, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pesant, N., & Zadra, A. L. (2004). Working with dreams in therapy: What do we know and what should we do? Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 489–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pisko, J., Pastorek, L., Buskova, J., Sonka, K., & Nevsimalova, S. (2014). Nightmares in narcolepsy: Underinvestigated symptom? Sleep Medicine, 15(8), 967–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Poulin, J., Pampoulova, T., Chouinard, S., Lecomte, Y., Stip, E., & Godbout, R. (2004). Sleep and dream habits in middle-aged, non hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia: Effects of neuroleptics and adjuvant pharmacotherapy. Sleep Supplement, 27, A348.Google Scholar
  70. Rak, M., Beitinger, P., Steiger, A., Schredl, M., & Dresler, M. (2015). Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy. Sleep, 38(5), 787–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Riemann, D., Löw, H., Schredl, M., Wiegand, M., Dippel, B., & Berger, M. (1990). Investigations of morning and laboratory dream recall and content in depressive patients during baseline conditions and under antidepressive treatment with trimipramine. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 15, 93–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ross, R. J., Ball, W. A., Sullivan, K. A., & Caroff, S. N. (1989). Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 697–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Roth, B., & Bruhova, S. (1969). Dreams in narcolepsy, hypersomnia and dissociated sleep disorders. Experimental Medicine and Surgery, 27, 187–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Scarone, S., Manzone, M. L., Gambini, O., Kantzas, I., Limosani, I., D’Agostino, A., & Hobson, J. A. (2008). The dream as a model for psychosis: An experimental approach using bizarreness as a cognitive marker. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 515–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schäfer, V., & Bader, K. (2009). The impact of early-life maltreatment on dreams of patients with insomnia. International Journal of Dream Research, 2, 18–26.Google Scholar
  76. Schenck, C. H., Scott, R., Ettinger, M. G., & Mahowald, M. W. (1986). Chronic behavioral disorders of human REM sleep: A new category of parasomnia. Sleep, 9, 293–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schredl, M. (1998a). Dream content in patients with narcolepsy: Preliminary findings. Dreaming, 8, 103–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schredl, M. (1998b). Träume und Schlafstörungen: Empirische Studie zur Traumerinnerungshäufigkeit und zum Trauminhalt schlafgestörter PatientInnen. Marburg: Tectum.Google Scholar
  79. Schredl, M. (2001). Dream recall frequency and sleep quality of patients with restless legs syndrome. European Journal of Neurology, 8, 185–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schredl, M. (2009). Nightmare frequency in patients with primary insomnia. International Journal of Dream Research, 2, 85–88.Google Scholar
  81. Schredl, M. (2010). Do sleep disorders affect the dreaming process? Dream recall and dream content in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5(2), 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schredl, M., & Engelhardt, H. (2001). Dreaming and psychopathology: Dream recall and dream content of psychiatric inpatients. Sleep and Hypnosis, 3, 44–54.Google Scholar
  83. Schredl, M., & Montasser, A. (1999). Dreaming and eating disorders. Sleep and Hypnosis, 1, 225–231.Google Scholar
  84. Schredl, M., & Schmitt, J. (2009). Dream recall frequency and nightmare frequency in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Somnologie, 13, 12–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schredl, M., Schäfer, G., Weber, B., & Heuser, I. (1998). Dreaming and insomnia: Dream recall and dream content of patients with insomnia. Journal of Sleep Research, 7, 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schredl, M., Kraft-Schneider, B., Kröger, H., & Heuser, I. (1999). Dream content of patients with sleep apnea. Somnologie, 3, 319–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schredl, M., Wittmann, L., Ciric, P., & Götz, S. (2003). Factors of home dream recall: A structural equation model. Journal of Sleep Research, 12, 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schredl, M., Schmitt, J., Hein, G., Schmoll, T., Eller, S., & Haaf, J. (2006). Nightmares and oxygen desaturations: Is sleep apnea related to heightened nightmare frequency? Sleep and Breathing, 10, 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schredl, M., Hebel, M. E., Klütsch, R. C., & Liehe, L. J. (2009a). The role of mood congruency memory effects in dream recall: A pilot study. Dreaming, 19, 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schredl, M., Riemann, D., & Berger, M. (2009b). The effect of trimipramine on dream recall and dream emotions in depressive outpatients. Psychiatry Research, 167, 279–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schredl, M., Binder, R., Feldmann, S., Göder, R., Hoppe, J., Schmitt, J., Schweitzer, M., Specht, M., & Steinig, J. (2012). Dreaming in patients with sleep disorders: A multicenter study. Somnologie, 16, 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Silber, M. H., St. Louis, E. K., & Boeve, B. F. (2017). Rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias. In M. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (6th ed., pp. 993–1001). Philadelphia: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Skancke, J., Holsen, I., & Schredl, M. (2014). Continuity between waking life and dreams of psychiatric patients: A review and discussion of the implications for dream research. International Journal of Dream Research, 7, 39–53.Google Scholar
  94. Strauch, I., & Meier, B. (1996). In search of dreams: Results of experimental dream research. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  95. Swart, M. L., van Schagen, A. M., Lancee, J., & van den Bout, J. (2013). Prevalence of nightmare disorder in psychiatric outpatients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 82(4), 267–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tribl, G. G., Wetter, T. C., & Schredl, M. (2013). Dreaming under antidepressants: A systematic review on evidence in depressive patients and healthy volunteers. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 17, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Uguccioni, G., Golmard, J.-L., de Fontréaux, A. N., Leu-Semenescu, S., Brion, A., & Arnulf, I. (2013). Fight or flight? Dream content during sleepwalking/sleep terrors vs rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Medicine, 14(5), 391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Valipour, A., Lothaller, H., Rauscher, H., Zwick, H., Burghuber, O. C., & Lavie, P. (2007). Gender-related differences in symptoms of patients with suspected breathing disorders in sleep: A clinical population study using the sleep disorders questionnaire. Sleep, 30, 306–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Valli, K., Frauscher, B., Gschliesser, V., Wolf, E., Falkenstetter, T., Schönwald, S. V., Ehrmann, L., Zangerl, A., Marti, I., Boesch, S. M., Revonsuo, A., Poewe, W., & Högl, B. (2012). Can observers link dream content to behaviours in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder? A cross-sectional experimental pilot study. Journal of Sleep Research, 21, 21–29. Scholar
  100. Wamsley, E. J., Donjacour, C. E. H. M., Scammell, T. E., Lammers, G. J., & Stickgold, R. (2014). Delusional confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. Sleep: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Research, 37(2), 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weizsäcker, V. v. (1937). Über Träume bei sogenannter endogener Magersucht. Deutsche Medizinsche Wochenschrift, 63, 253–257, 294–229.Google Scholar
  102. Whitman, R. M., Kramer, M., & Baldridge, B. J. (1963). Which dream does the patient tell? Archives of General Psychiatry, 8, 277–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zanasi, M., Calisti, F., Di Lorenzo, G., Valerio, G., & Siracusano, A. (2011). Oneiric activity in schizophrenia: Textual analysis of dream reports. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(2), 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Schredl
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Institute of Mental HealthMannheimGermany

Personalised recommendations