Harmonisation of Regional Energy Regulations

  • Victoria R. Nalule
Part of the Energy, Climate and the Environment book series (ECE)


In this chapter the author discusses the regulation of the energy markets in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a means of promoting regional energy cooperation. The author explores the role of regionalism in harmonising various national energy regulations. A comparative analysis is employed to discuss the role of national regulatory authorities of various African countries, their scope of duties, and tasks.


  1. Bonafé Martínez, E. (2010). Towards a European energy policy: Resources and constraints in EU law (Doctoral book) page 124.Google Scholar
  2. Cameron, P. D. (2005). Legal aspects of EU energy regulation: Implementing the new directives on electricity and gas across Europe.Google Scholar
  3. Cameron, P. D., & Brothwood, M. (2002). Competition in energy markets: Law and regulation in the European Union. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Communication from the Commission to the European Council and the European Parliament “An energy policy for Europe” COM (2007) 1 final.Google Scholar
  5. Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC (OJ L 211, 14.8.2009).Google Scholar
  6. Eberlein, B. (2005). Regulation by cooperation: The “third way” in making rules for the internal energy market. Legal aspects of EU energy regulation.Google Scholar
  7. Electricity Regulation Act, 2006 (Act No. 4 of 2006); Gas Act, 2001 (Act No. 48 of 2001) and Petroleum Pipelines Act, 2003 (Act No. 60 of 2003).Google Scholar
  8. Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority of Tanzania Act, CAP 414, Laws of Tanzania.Google Scholar
  9. Energy Regulatory Act, 2007 (Act No. 2 of 2007), Laws of Swaziland.Google Scholar
  10. Energy Regulation Act 2004, Laws of Malawi.Google Scholar
  11. Energy Regulation Act, Cap 436 of the Laws of Zambia.Google Scholar
  12. Energy Regulatory Act, 2011 (Chapter 13:23), Laws of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  13. Estache, A. (1997). Designing regulatory institutions for infrastructure—Lessons from Argentina. Public Policy for the Private Sector, 114.Google Scholar
  14. Estache, A., Rossi, M. A., & Ruzzier, C. A. (2004). The case for international coordination of electricity regulation: Evidence from the measurement of efficiency in South America. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 25(3), 271–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hogan, W. W. (1995). Coordination for competition in an electricity market. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  16. Kwoka, J. (2008). Barriers to new competition in electricity generation. Report to the American Public Power Association, Northeastern University.Google Scholar
  17. Lavrijssen, S., & Carrillo, A.J. (2017). Radical innovation in the energy sector and the impact on regulation.Google Scholar
  18. Lesotho Electricity Act No. 12 of 2002 as amended, Laws of Lesotho.Google Scholar
  19. National Energy Regulator Act, 2004 (Act No.40 of 2004), Laws of South Africa.Google Scholar
  20. Pérez-Arriaga, I. J. (Ed.). (2014). Regulation of the power sector (p. VIII). Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  21. Recital 33 of Directive 2009/72/EC and Recital 29 of Directive 2009/73/EC.Google Scholar
  22. SAPP Annual Report, 2015.Google Scholar
  23. Smith, W. (1997). Utility regulators: Decision making structures, resources, and start-up strategy.Google Scholar
  24. World Bank. (2008). Building regional power pools: A toolkit. Technical report. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria R. Nalule
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP)University of DundeeScotlandUK

Personalised recommendations