Advertisement

Selenium pp 287-300 | Cite as

Selenium in Radiation Oncology

  • Oliver MickeEmail author
  • Jens Buentzel
  • Ralph Mücke
Chapter
Part of the Molecular and Integrative Toxicology book series (MOLECUL)

Abstract

Selenium measurement and supplementation in radiation oncology is a controversial issue. Selenium has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. Recent clinical trials showed the importance of selenium for clinical radiation oncology. This overview outlines the most important results from literature and our own experience. Additionally, we want to point out the future scientific topics. Moreover, we highlight strategies for identifying those tumor patients who might benefit most from selenium, and we discuss the potential benefits and risks of this selenium supplementation. In conclusion, selenium supplementation yielded promising results concerning radioprotection in tumor patients and should be considered as a meaningful adjuvant treatment option in subjects with a low selenium status.

Keywords

Selenium Selenoproteins Radiotherapy Radiation oncology Free radicals Side effects Cytoprotection Radioprotection Antioxidants 

References

  1. Arthur JR. The glutathione peroxidases. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57:1825–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asfour IA, Shazly SE, Fayek MH, Hegab HM, Raouf S, Moussa MA. Effect of high-dose sodium selenite therapy on polymorphonuclear leukocyte apoptosis in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006;110:19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asfour IA, Fayek MH, Raouf S, Soliman M, Hegab HM, El-Desoky H, Saleh R, Moussa MA. The impact of high-dose sodium selenite therapy on Bcl-2 expression in adult non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients: correlation with response and survival. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007;120:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asfour IA, El-Tehewi MM, Ahmed MH, Abdel-Sattar MA, Moustafa NN, Hegab HM, Fathey OM. High-dose sodium selenite can induce apoptosis of lymphoma cells in adult patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009;127:200–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck MA, Nelson HK, Shi Q, Van Dael P, Schiffrin EJ, Blum S, Barclay D, Levander OA. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J. 2001;15:1481–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium levels and all cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality among US adults. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:404–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Breccia A, Badiello R, Trenta M, Mattii M. On the chemical radioprotection by organic selenium compounds in vivo. Radiat Res. 1969;38:483–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brenke R, Siems W, Grune T. Measures for therapy optimization in chronic lymphedema. Z Lymphol. 1997;21:1–29.Google Scholar
  9. Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW. Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol. 2001;166:2034–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruns F, Buentzel J, Muecke R, Schoenekaes K, Kisters K, Micke O. Selenium in the treatment of head and neck lymphedema. Med Princ Pract. 2004;13:185–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buentzel J, Muecke R, Micke O. Mineral status and enzymatic antioxidative capacities during radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2000;18:98.Google Scholar
  12. Buentzel J, Micke O, Muecke R, Schoenekaes KG, Schaefer U, Kisters K, Bruns F. Amifostine and selenium during simultaneous radiochemotherapy in head and neck cancer—redox status data. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2005;22:211–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buentzel J, Micke O, Kisters K, Bruns F, Glatzel M, Schoenekaes KG, Schaefer U, Muecke R. Selenium substitution during radiotherapy of solid tumours—laboratory data from two observation studies in gynaecologic and head and neck cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2010a;30:1783–6.Google Scholar
  14. Buentzel J, Riesenbeck D, Glatzel M, Berndt-Skorka R, Riedel T, Muecke R, Kisters K, Schoenekaes KG, Schaefer U, Bruns F, Micke O. Limited effects of selenium substitution in the prevention of radiation-associated toxicities. Results of a randomized study in head neck cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2010b;30:1829–32.Google Scholar
  15. Buentzel J, Micke O, Glatzel M, Schaefer U, Riesenbeck D, Kisters K, Bruns F, Schoenekaes KG, Dawczynski H, Muecke R. Selenium substitution during radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2010c;27:235–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buentzel J, Knolle U, Garayev A, Muecke R, Schaefer U, Kisters K, Schoenekaes KG, Hunger R, Bruns F, Glatzel M, Micke O. Trace elements selenium and zinc as tumor markers in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2010d;27:246–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buentzel J, Büntzel H, Micke O, Kisters K, Bruns F, Glatzel M, Muecke R, Schoenekaes KG, Schaefer U. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in terminally ill patients. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2011;28:49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burk RF, Hill KE, Motley AK. Plasma selenium in specific and non-specific forms. Biofactors. 2001;14:107–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan L, He L, Zhou B, Guan S, Bo M, Yang Y, Liu Y, Liu X, Zhang Y, Xie Q, Chen T. Cancer-targeted selenium nanoparticles sensitize cancer cells to continuous γ radiation to achieve synergetic chemo-radiotherapy. Chem Asian J. 2017;12:3053–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J, Davis LS, Glover RA, Graham GF, Gross EG, Krongrad A, Lesher JL, Park HK, Sanders BB, Smith CI, Taylor JR. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA. 1996;276:1957–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Conrad M, Schweizer U. Unveiling the molecular mechanisms behind selenium-related diseases through knockout mouse studies. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:851–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coombs GF Jr. Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr. 2001;85:517–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis RL, Spallholz JE. Inhibition of selenite-catalyzed superoxide generation and formation of elemental selenium (Se0) by copper, zinc, and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). Biochem Pharmacol. 1996;51:1015–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dennert G, Horneber M. Selenium for alleviating the side effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD005037.Google Scholar
  25. Diamond AM, Dale P, Murray JL, Grdina DJ. The inhibition of radiation-induced Mutagenesis by the combined effects of selenium and the aminothiol WR-1065. Mutat Res. 1996;356:147–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doerr W. Effects of selenium on radiation responses of tumor cells and tissue. Strahlenther Onkol. 2006;182:693–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Du J, Gu Z, Yan L, Yong Y, Yi X, Zhang X, Liu J, Wu R, Ge C, Chen C, Zhao Y. Poly(Vinylpyrollidone)- and selenocysteine-Modified Bi2Se3 nanoparticles enhance radiotherapy efficacy in tumors and promote radioprotection in normal tissues. Adv Mater. 2017;29Google Scholar
  28. El-Ghazaly MA, Fadel N, Rashed E, El-Batal A, Kenawy SA. Anti-inflammatory effect of selenium nanoparticles on the inflammation induced in irradiated rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017;95:101–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Epp O, Ladenstein R, Wendel A. The refined structure of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase at 0.2 nm resolution. Eur J Biochem. 1983;133:51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans SO, Khairuddin PF, Jameson MB. Optimising selenium for modulation of cancer treatments. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:6497–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fischer JL, Mihelc EM, Pollok KE, Smith ML. Chemotherapeutic selectivity conferred by selenium: a role for p53-dependent DNA repair. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:355–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fraunholz I, Jueling-Pohlit L, Boettcher H. Influence of selenium on acute mucositis in radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumors. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2001;18:98–9.Google Scholar
  33. Frisk P, Saetre A, Couce B, Stenerlow B, Carlsson J, Lindh U. Effects of Pb2+, Ni2+, Hg2+ and Se4+ on cultured cells. Analysis of uptake, toxicity and influence on radiosensitivity. Biometals. 1997;10:263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Funke AM. Potential of selenium in gynecological oncology. Med Klin. 1999;94:42–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gehrisch A, Doerr W. Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183:36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gudkov AV. Converting p53 from a killer to a healer. Nat Med. 2002;8:1196–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hehr T, Hoffmann W, Bamberg M. Role of sodium selenite as an adjuvant in radiotherapy of rectal carcinoma. Med Klin. 1997;92(Suppl. 3):48–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hehr T, Bamberg M, Rodemann HP. Präklinische und klinische relevanz der radiopro-tektiven Wirkung von Natriumselenit. InFoOnkologie. 1999;2(Suppl 2):25–9.Google Scholar
  39. Hoefig CS, Renko K, Köhrle J, Birringer M, Schomburg L. Comparison of different selenocompounds with respect to nutritional value vs. toxicity using liver cells in culture. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:945–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hu YJ, Chen Y, Zhang YQ, Zhou MZ, Song XM, Zhang BZ, Luo L, Xu PM, Zhao YN, Zhao YB, Cheng G. The protective role of selenium on the toxicity of cisplatinum-contained chemotherapy regimen in cancer patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997;56:331–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kasseroller R. Sodium selenite as prophylaxis against erysipelas in secondary lymphedema. Anticancer Res. 1998;18:2227–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kellen E, Zeegers M, Buntinx F. Selenium is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1180–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Knekt P, Aromaa A, Mantela J. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and woman. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:864–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigo R, Gladyshev VN. Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science. 2003;300:1439–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kvicala J, Zamrazil V, Nemecek J, Jiranek V. Influence of long-term supplementation by various quantities of yeast-bound selenium upon selenium-status of South Bohemia seniors. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2011;28:11–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lanfear J, Fleming J, Wu L, Webster G, Harrison PR. The selenium metabolite selenodiglutathione induces p53 and apoptosis: relevance to the chemoprotective effects of selenium? Carcinogenesis. 1994;15:1387–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Last KW, Cornelius V, Delves T, Sieniawska CH, Fitzgibbon J, Norton A, Amess J, Wilson A, Rohatiner A, Lister AT. Presentation serum selenium predicts for overall survival, dose delivery, and first treatment response in aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:2335–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Last K, Maharaj L, Perry J, Strauss S, Fitzgibbon J, Lister TA, Joel S. The activity of methylated and non-methylated selenium species in lymphoma cell lines and primary tumours. Ann Oncol. 2006;17:773–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM, Ford LG, Parnes HL, Minasian LM, Gaziano JM, Hartline JA, Parsons JK, Bearden JD, Crawford ED, Goodman GE, Claudio J, Winquist E, Cook ED, Karp DD, Walther P, Lieber MM, Kristal AR, Darke AK, Arnold KB, Ganz PA, Santella RM, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Probstfield JL, Jagpal TJ, Crowley JJ, Meyskens FL, Baker LH, Coltman CA. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: The selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301:39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lu JX, Kaeck M, Jiang C, Wilson AC, Thompson HJ. Selenite induction of DNA strand breaks and apoptosis in mouse leukemic L1210 cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994;47:1531–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Margulies BS, Damron TA, Allen MJ. The differential effects of the radioprotectant drugs amifostine and sodium selenite treatment in combination with radiation therapy on constituent bone cells, Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor cells, and rhabdomyosarcoma tumor cells in vitro. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:1512–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Meyer HA, Hollenbach B, Stephan C, Endermann T, Morgenthaler NG, Cammann H, Kohrle J, Jung K, Schomburg L. Reduced serum selenoprotein P concentrations in German prostate cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18:2386–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Micke O, Bruns F, Muecke R, Schaefer U, Glatzel M, DeVries AF, Schoenekaes K, Kisters K, Büntzel J. Selenium in the treatment of radiation-associated secondary lymphedema. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56:40–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Micke O, Bruns F, Glatzel M, Schoenekaes KG, Micke P, Muecke R, Buentzel J. Predictive factors for the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in radiation oncology. Eur J Integr Med. 2009;1:22–30.Google Scholar
  55. Micke O, Schomburg L, Buentzel J, Kisters K, Muecke R. Selenium in oncology—an update. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2010a;27:250–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Micke O, Muecke R, Buentzel J, Kisters K, Schaefer U. Some more steps on the way to clinical elementology. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2010b;27:29–34.Google Scholar
  57. Micke O, Schomburg L, Kisters K, Buentzel J, Huebner J, Muecke R. Selenium and hypertension: do we need to reconsider selenium supplementation in cancer patients? J Hypertens. 2013;31:1049–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller S, Walker SW, Arthur JR, Nicol F, Pickard K, Lewin MH, Howie AF, Beckett GJ. Selenite protects human endothelial cells from oxidative damage and induces thioredoxin reductase. Clin Sci. 2001;100:543–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Muecke R, Micke O, Schoenekaes KG. Serum selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase activities and serum redox potential levels in patients with untreated non-small cell lung cancer and adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2000a;17:119–23.Google Scholar
  60. Muecke R, Klotz T, Giedl J, Buentzel J, Kundt G, Kisters K, Prott FJ, Micke O. Whole blood selenium levels (WBSL) in patients with prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy male inhabitants (HMI) and prostatic tissue selenium levels (PTSL) in patients with PC and BPH. Acta Oncol. 2009a;48:239–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Muecke R, Buentzel J, Glatzel M, Bruns F, Kisters K, Prott FJ, Schmidberger H, Micke O. Postoperative serum and whole blood selenium levels in patients with squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the uterus after curative surgical treatment. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2009b;26:78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Muecke R, Schomburg L, Buentzel J, Gröber U, Holzhauer P, Micke O. Komplementärer Seleneinsatz in der Onkologie. Onkologe. 2010a;16:181–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Muecke R, Schomburg L, Buentzel J, Kisters K, Micke O. Blood selenium status in tumor patients—Omnia sunt venena, nihil est sine veneno. Sola dosis facit venenum. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2010b;27:181–4.Google Scholar
  64. Muecke R, Schomburg L, Buentzel J, Kisters K, Micke O. Selenium or no selenium—that is the question in tumor patients: a new controversy. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010c;9:136–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Muecke R, Schomburg L, Glatzel M, Bernd-Skorka R, Baaske D, Reichl B, Buentzel J, Kundt G, Prott FJ, De Vries A, Stoll G, Kisters K, Bruns F, Schaefer U, Willich N, Micke O. Multicenter, phase III trial comparing selenium supplementation with observation in gynecologic radiation oncology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010d;70:828–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muecke R, Micke O, Schomburg L, Kisters K, Buentzel J, Huebner J, Kriz J. Selenium supplementation in radiotherapy patients: do we need to measure selenium levels in serum or blood regularly prior radiotherapy? Radiat Oncol. 2014a;9:289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muecke R, Micke O, Schomburg L, Glatzel M, Reichl B, Kisters K, Schaefer U, Huebner J, Eich HT, Fakhrian K, Adamietz IA, Buentzel J. Multicenter, phase III trial comparing selenium supplementation with observation in gynecologic radiation oncology: follow-up analysis of the survival data 6 years after cessation of randomization. Integr Cancer Ther. 2014b;13:463–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mutlu-Tuerkoglu UE, Erbil Y, Oztezcan S, Olgac V, Toker G, Uysal M. The effect of selenium and/or vitamin E treatments on radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats. Life Sci. 2000;66:1905–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Papp LV, Lu J, Holmgren A, Khanna KK. From selenium to selenoproteins: synthesis, identity, and their role in human health. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9:775–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Patchen ML, MacVittie TJ, Weiss JF. Combined modality radioprotection: the use of glucan and selenium with WR-2721. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1990;18:1069–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pawlowicz Z, Zachara BA, Trafikowska U, Maciag A, Marchaluk E, Nowicki A. Blood selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in patients with breast cancer and with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis. 1991;5:272–7.Google Scholar
  72. Pfister C, Dawzcynski H, Schingale FJ. Sodium selenite and cancer related lymphedema: Biological and pharmacological effects. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016;37:111–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Puspitasari IM, Abdulah R, Yamazaki C, Kameo S, Nakano T, Koyama H. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2014;9:125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Puspitasari IM, Yamazaki C, Abdulah R, Putri M, Kameo S, Nakano T, Koyama H. Protective effects of sodium selenite supplementation against irradiation-induced damage in non-cancerous human esophageal cells. Oncol Lett. 2017;13:449–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet. 2000;356:233–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012;379:1256–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rodemann HP, Hehr T, Bamberg M. Relevance of the radioprotective effect of sodium selenite. Med Klin (Munich). 1999;94(Suppl 3):39–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schleicher UM, Lopez Cotarelo C, Andreopoulos D, Handt S, Ammon J. Radioprotection of human endothelial cells by sodium selenite. Med Klin (Munich). 1999;94(Suppl 3):35–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schomburg L, Schweizer U, Koehrle J. Selenium and selenoproteins in mammals: extraordinary, essential, enigmatic. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:1988–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schrauzer GN. Selenium in the therapy of chronic lymphedema—mechanistic perspectives and practical applications. Z Lymphol. 1997;21:16–9.Google Scholar
  81. Schueller P, Puettmann S, Muecke R, Senner V, Schaefer U, Kisters K, Micke O. From the radiolysis of water to the role of trace elements in radiobiology and clinical radiation therapy: following a logical chain. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2001;18:186–92. 34–36.Google Scholar
  82. Schueller P, Puettmann S, Micke O, Senner V, Schaefer U, Willich N. Selenium influences the radiation sensitivity of C6 rat glioma cells. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:2913–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Schueller P, Puettmann S, Micke O, Senner V, Schaefer U, Willich N. Selenium—A novel radiosensitizer? Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2005;22:201–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shin SH, Yoon MJ, Kim M, Kim JI, Lee SJ, Lee YS, Bae S. Enhanced lung cancer cell killing by the combination of selenium and ionizing radiation. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:209–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Shu-You Y, Ya-Jun Z, Li W-G, Qui-Sheng H, Zhi-Huang C, Qi-Nan Z, Chong H. A preliminary report on the intervention trials of primary liver cancer in high-risk populations with nutritional supplementation of selenium in china. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1991;29:289–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sieja K, Talerczyk M. Selenium as an element in the treatment of ovarian cancer in women receiving chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93:320–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spallholz JE. On the nature of selenium toxicity and carcinostatic activity. Free Radic Biol Med. 1994;17:45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stewart MS, Spallholz JE, Neldner KH, Pence BC. Selenium compounds have disparate abilities to impose oxidative stress and include apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;26:42–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, Donahue RP, Trevisan M, Combs GF, Cappuccio FP, Ceriello A, Reid ME. Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:217–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Torun M, Aldemir H, Yardim S. Serum selenium levels in various cancer types. Trace Elem Electrolytes. 1995;12:186–90.Google Scholar
  91. Vunta H, Davis F, Palempalli UD, Bhat D, Arner RJ, Thompson JT, Peterson DG, Reddy CC, Prabhu KS. The anti-inflammatory effects of selenium are mediated through 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17964–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wadhwani SA, Shedbalkar UU, Singh R, Chopade BA. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles: current status and future prospects. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:2555–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weijl NI, Elsendoorn TJ, Lentjes EG, Hopman GD, Wipkink-Bakker A, Zwinderman AH, Cleton FJ, Osanto S. Supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:1713–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weiss JF, Landauer MR. History and development of radiation-protective agents. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:539–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weiss JF, Hoover RL, Kumar KS. Selenium enhances the radioprotective effect and reduces the lethal toxicity of WR-2721. Free Radic Res Commun. 1987;3:33–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yu B, Liu T, Du Y, Luo Z, Zheng W, Chen T. X-ray-responsive selenium nanoparticles for enhanced cancer chemo-radiotherapy. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2016;139:180–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhung W, Yan T, Lim R, Oberley LW. Expression of superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in glioma cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;27:1334–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zimmermann T, Leonhardt H, Kersting S, Albrecht S, Range U, Eckelt U. Reduction of postoperative lymphedema after oral tumor surgery with sodium selenite. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;106:193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Franziskus Hospital BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Klinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Südharz KlinikumNordhausenGermany
  3. 3.Strahlentherapie RheinMainNaheBad KreuznachGermany

Personalised recommendations