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Functional Neuroimage

  • Celi Santos Andrade
  • Leandro Tavares Lucato
  • Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel
  • Claudia da Costa Leite
Chapter

Abstract

Traditionally, computed tomography (CT) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have played a crucial role in the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, several challenges arise in applying neuroimaging methods to predict clinical outcome in patients with a broad range of degree of injuries, especially in individuals who develop persistent symptoms despite minor findings on standard imaging.

Novel anatomical/structural techniques, such as susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional techniques, including resting-state and task-based functional MRI (fMRI), perfusion MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron-emission tomography (PET), have emerged and have the potential to identify hitherto undetected brain abnormalities in head injury survivors. In this chapter, we review some basic technical aspects of these modern techniques along with their contributions to the understanding of pathophysiology of TBI and their potential use to indicate biomarkers and prognosis. In the future, these modern imaging tools may also aid in selection of patients for targeted therapies.

Keywords

Traumatic brain injury Diffuse axonal injury Magnetic resonance imaging Susceptibility-weighted imaging Diffusion-weighted imaging Diffusion tensor imaging Functional magnetic resonance imaging Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging Arterial spin labeling Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Single photon emission computed tomography Positron-emission tomography 

Abbreviations

1H-MRS

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

AD

Axial diffusivity

ASL

Arterial spin labeling

BIAA

Brain Injury Association of America

BOLD

Blood-oxygen-level-dependent

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

CBV

Cerebral blood volume

Cho

Choline

Cr

Creatine

CT

Computed tomography

CTE

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

DAI

Diffuse axonal injury

DSC

Dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

FA

Fractional anisotropy (FA)

FDG

[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose

FLAIR

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery

fMRI

Functional MRI

GCS

Glasgow coma scale

GLx

Glutamate/glutamine

Ins

Myoinositol

Lac

Lactate

MD

Mean diffusivity

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

MTT

Mean transit time

NAA

N-acetyl aspartate

PET

Positron-emission tomography

PIB

11C-Pittsburgh compound B

rCBV

Regional cerebral blood flow

RD

Radial diffusivity

ROI

Region of interest

RS-fMRI

Resting-state fMRI

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

SWI

Susceptibility-weighted imaging

T2*-GRE

T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TBSS

Tract-based spatial statistics

WM

White matter

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Celi Santos Andrade
    • 1
  • Leandro Tavares Lucato
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel
    • 1
  • Claudia da Costa Leite
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiology and OncologySchool of Medicine – University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.LIM 44-Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in NeuroradiologySão PauloBrazil

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