Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy of Chronic Pain

  • Sukdeb Datta
  • Laxmaiah Manchikanti


Pharmacotherapy for chronic pain remains very much an art. Pharmacologic approaches are generally combined with other approaches to the treatment of chronic pain including physical medicine, behavioral medicine, neuromodulation, and interventional, surgical, and complementary and alternative medicine approaches.

Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain includes acetaminophen, traditional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), COX-2 selective inhibitors, tramadol, opioids (e.g., morphine, hydrocodone/acetaminophen, oxycodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxymorphone, buprenorphine, methadone, tapentadol), calcium channel alpha-2 delta ligands, skeletal relaxants (baclofen, tizanidine, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, methocarbamol, orphenadrine), topical analgesics (lidocaine 5% patch, capsaicin/high-concentration capsaicin patch, topical NSAIDs), and botulinum toxins.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukdeb Datta
    • 1
  • Laxmaiah Manchikanti
    • 2
  1. 1.Datta Endoscopic Back Surgery and Pain CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Pain Management Center of Paducah, Anesthesiology and Perioperative MedicineUniversity of LouisvillePaducahUSA

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