Implication of Oxidative Stress, Aging, and Inflammatory Processes in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Growth Factors as Therapeutic Approach

  • Macarena Lorena Herrera
  • Eugenia Falomir-Lockhart
  • Franco Juan Cruz Dolcetti
  • Nathalie Arnal
  • María José Bellini
  • Claudia Beatriz HereñúEmail author


The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing progressively, and unfortunately the molecular mechanisms that lead to them are still unknown. Several studies are advancing in the comprehension of the processes involved in the establishment of the neurodegeneration. In this sense, the current approaches are focused on genes associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, reactional gliosis or microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, IL-6 increase as a transcription factor, growth factor decrease, mitochondrial dysfunction, antioxidant defense system, cellular metabolism, protein degradation/aggregation, and oxidative stress triggering redox-dependent signals, among others. Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases show an increased diagnosis worldwide and are examples of deleterious effects associated with aging.

The present chapter is focused on the implication of the oxidative stress, aging, and inflammation processes on neurodegenerative alterations that lead to neuronal dysfunctions, tissue disturbances, and motor-cognitive disorders. In regard to this, the neurotrophic factors of clinical interest prevent the degeneration and enhance recovery of remaining neurons. Among them, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is strongly induced by microglial cells after different insults such as ischemia, cortical injury, and inflammatory processes, is emerging as a powerful neuroprotective molecule. For this reason, we will close this chapter with the implications of IGF-1 on neurodegenerative diseases as a key neuroprotective and neuromodulator molecule.


Inflammation Aging Neurodegeneration Neurotrophic factors 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Macarena Lorena Herrera
    • 1
  • Eugenia Falomir-Lockhart
    • 2
  • Franco Juan Cruz Dolcetti
    • 2
  • Nathalie Arnal
    • 2
  • María José Bellini
    • 2
  • Claudia Beatriz Hereñú
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Departamento de Farmacología, Córdoba, Argentina, Instituto de Farmacología Experimental de Córdoba (IFEC-CONICET)Ciudad UniversitariaCórdobaArgentina
  2. 2.Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata (INIBIOLP-CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina

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