State of Knowledge and Future Needs for NZVI Applications in Subsurface Remediation

  • Gregory V. LowryEmail author
  • Tanapon Phenrat


This final chapter summarizes the key lessons learned from a large number of laboratory-scale, intermediate-scale, and well-documented field-scale experiments using NZVI for in situ remediation presented in this book. The goal is to provide guidance to site managers and remediation professionals who are considering the use of NZVI for in situ treatment of a contaminant source zone, particularly those containing dense nonaqueous phase liquids or reducible heavy metals, as these are the most prevalent types of sites for application of NZVI. It also provides guidance on site conditions where NZVI treatment may be a viable option in terms of reactivity with contaminants of concern, reactive lifetime, and particle deliverability. The chapter also highlights the importance of NZVI characteristics to provide longer reactive lifetimes, viable injection methods for emplacing NZVI in the desired location in the subsurface, and detailed site characterizations as well as suitable laboratory feasibility studies. Future research needs for more effective NZVI applications in subsurface remediation, including a better understanding of combined NZVI-monitored natural recovery or bioremediation strategies and more detailed performance evaluations, are also discussed.


Nanoscale zerovalent iron Lesson learned Future need Guidance Field implementation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT)Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering ProgramNaresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  4. 4.Center of Excellence for Sustainability of Health, Environment and Industry (SHEI), Faculty of EngineeringNaresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand

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