HIV-1 GP160 (GP120/GP40) Trimer ENV Spike Protein
The design, development, and testing of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine formula are a continuing endeavor over the last two decades. The contemplation of HIV-1/GP160 (cleaved GP120/GP40) trimer complex ENV spike as a vaccine candidate is a biotechnological challenge due to downstream processing issues such as purification, refolding, and conformational stability. The production and reconstitution of protein subunits to form the trimer spike complex for effective immunity triggered by structural conformation are both a protein folding and a protein-protein interaction problem. An effective HIV-1/GP160 (cleaved GP120/GP40) trimer ENV spike complex has nine interfaces with three different types between GP120/GP120, GP40/GP40, and GP120/GP40. This complex protein assembly of recombinant protein subunits is critical for creating a viable immune response in the context of HIV-1/AIDS. The development of an effective vaccine candidate is further obscured by high mutations across different clades in addition to protein glycosylation of the ENV complex. These observations provide valuable insight in the understanding of HIV-1/GP160 (cleaved GP120/GP40) trimer ENV spike complex toward the development of a workable recombinant vaccine candidate.
KeywordsHIV-1 AIDS Clades GP160 GP120 GP40 Trimer Spike Glycol-protein Mutations
- Kangueane P, Nilofer C (2018) Protein–protein and domain–domain interaction. Springer Nature, New York, pp 1–207 ISBN: 978-981-10-7346-5, 207Google Scholar
- Kangueane P, Kayathri R, Sakharkar MK, Flower DR, Sadler K, Chiappelli F (2008) Designing HIV gp120 peptide vaccines: rhetoric or reality for neuro-AIDS. The spectrum of neuro-AIDS disorders: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. p 105–119Google Scholar
- Liu Y, Pan J, Cai Y, Grigorieff N, Harrison SC, Chen B (2017) Conformational states of a soluble, uncleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer. J Virol 91:175–117Google Scholar
- Nilofer C, Mohanapriya A, Kangueane P (2018) HIV-1 envelope GP160 trimer spike as a vaccine candidate. In: Shapshak P, Levine A, Foley B, Somboonwit C (eds) Global virology II—HIV and neuroaids, 1st edn. Springer-Verlag New York Inc, New York 978-1-4939-7288-3 (ISBN) Chapter 36Google Scholar
- Rerks-Ngarm S, Paris RM, Chunsutthiwat S, Premsri N, Namwat C, Bowonwatanuwong C et al (2013) Extended evaluation of the virologic, immunologic, and clinical course of volunteers who acquired HIV-1 infection in a phase III vaccine trial of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E. J Infect Dis 207(8):1195–1205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar