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Effect of Climate Change on the High-Mountain Tree Species and Their Genetic Resources in Bulgaria

  • Momchil Panayotov
  • Nickolay Tsvetanov
  • Evgeni Tsavkov
  • Georgi Gogushev
  • Peter Bebi
  • Petar Zhelev
  • Stefan Yurukov
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Global Change Research book series (AGLO, volume 65)

Abstract

Climate change have the potential to strongly affect mountain coniferous forests in Bulgaria in several ways: (1) By directly affecting tree growth and the potential of trees to successfully cope with climate extremes; (2) By affecting disturbance events and regimes, which on their turn may trigger further habitat changes; (3) By facilitating migration of better adapted for the new climate condition species, which can outcompete other less adapted species and replace them and (4) By facilitating invasive species. In this chapter we provide data on the distribution of coniferous forests in Bulgarian mountains and short reviews of recent tree ring studies and studies on disturbance regimes. The tree ring data show the high importance of drought and other extreme climate events on high-mountain conifer species. This outlines that expected summer warming and temperature increase have the potential to strongly affect tree growth. The disturbance data shows the high importance of fires and windthrows, but also high number of snow damages and avalanches, which are not to be neglected. Insect outbreaks may be further facilitated if summer temperatures increase and allow species, which are currently limited by colder temperatures in higher altitudes, to affect also forests higher up. All these factors can act together and modify habitat quality and conditions and in this way put in risk species and genotypes with limited distribution and narrow growth niches. It is therefore necessary to take measures for ex-situ conservation of genotypes besides the well developed in-situ conservation in the network of protected areas in Bulgaria.

Keywords

Mountain coniferous forests Disturbance Tree –ring studies Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Most of the studies reported in this chapter were performed within the framework of a Swiss-Bulgarian Project “Subalpine forest development in Bulgarian mountain forests under climate change” supported by Swiss National Science Fund (project IZEBZO143109). Part of the study was supported also by the project “Integrated Research on Forest Resilience and Management in the Mediterranean (INFORMED)”.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Momchil Panayotov
    • 1
  • Nickolay Tsvetanov
    • 1
  • Evgeni Tsavkov
    • 1
  • Georgi Gogushev
    • 2
  • Peter Bebi
    • 3
  • Petar Zhelev
    • 1
  • Stefan Yurukov
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ForestrySofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Regional Forestry Directorate – BlagoevgradBlagoevgradBulgaria
  3. 3.WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLFDavosSwitzerland

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