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Overview of PCR-Based Technologies and Multiplexed Gene Analysis for Biomarker Studies

  • Yesim Gökmen-Polar
Chapter

Abstract

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an invaluable tool for the assessment of the presence and type of nucleic acids in tissues and body fluids. It is the in vitro enzymatic synthesis and amplification of specific DNA sequences. It can amplify one molecule of DNA or RNA into billions of copies in a few hours. This enables mutation tracking for management of any cancer, which is particularly crucial in targeted therapies. Novel applications include analysis of blood for circulating DNA for tumor-associated mutations. RNA analysis has been extensively used for quantification of gene expression. This forms the basis of multiple gene expression assays including multigene panels that are being developed for prognostic and predictive purposes. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the basics of PCR and the current applications in clinical oncology.

Keywords

Polymerase chain reaction Endpoint PCR Quantitative PCR and reverse transcription-qPCR Clinical oncology 

Abbreviations

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

dNTPs

Deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

qPCR

Quantitative real-time PCR

RT-qPCR

Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR

RT-PCR

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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