Updates in the Management of Foreign Bodies of the Gastrointestinal Tract
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Ingested Foreign body (FB) removal is a relatively common practice in the endoscopic emergency room and children are the patients most frequently involved. Most FB will transit spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract. Only 10–20% of FB will need medical treatment.
Depending on patient’s clinical conditions as well as on the characteristics of the ingested object, the management of gastrointestinal FB ranges from a conservative observational waiting to an emergency removal.
Flexible endoscopy is the technique most frequently used to retrieve a FB from the gastrointestinal tract. A surgical approach is necessary in the case of unsuccessful endoscopic retrieval or in the presence of major complications like perforation or peritonitis.
A few specific FB will be discussed in detail, particularly disk batteries since their ingestion has widely increased in the last years and the potential complications are extremely severe.
Lower gastrointestinal tract FB and their management will also be described.
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