Shock Compaction of Al Powder Examined by X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging

  • A. Mandal
  • M. Hudspeth
  • B. J. Jensen
  • S. Root
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)


Shock compaction response of ∼50% porous aluminum powder, encapsulated in PMMA cylinders and impacted at 0.3–1.7 km/s using 6061-T6 Al impactors, was examined in situ and in real time using a propagation-based X-ray phase contract imaging (PCI) technique capable of providing micron spatial resolution at the Advanced Photon Source. Numerical simulations of the PCI data accurately captured the propagating compaction shock wave in the powder and the deformation of the powder column.


Shock compaction Aluminum powder X-ray phase contrast imaging Shock-polar method CTH simulation 



This publication is based upon work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). All PCI data shown in this work were obtained using LANL’s novel multi-frame X-ray phase contrast imaging (MPCI) system developed on the IMPULSE capability at APS. A.M. and B.J.J. acknowledge the financial support provided by LANL Science Campaigns, Joint Munitions Program (JMP), and MaRIE concept, and National Security Technologies (NSTec) Shock Wave Physics Related Diagnostic (SWRD) program. M.H and S.R. acknowledge financial support provided by the Truman fellowship (LDRD) and Science Campaigns within SNL. Paulo Rigg and the DCS team is thanked for their assistance with the experiments; Chuck Owens, Joe Rivera (LANL) and Jim Williams (SNL) are thanked for target assembly; Adam Iverson, Carl Carlson and Matt Teel (NSTec) are thanked for their assistance with the PCI system. LANL is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. SNL is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. DOE, NNSA under contract DE-NA0003525. DCS is supported by the U. S. DOE, NNSA, under Award Number DE-NA0002442 and operated by Washington State University (WSU). This research used resources of APS, a U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, G.D., Doran, D.G., Fahrenbruch, A.L.: Equation of State of Solids: Aluminum and Teflon, Tech. Rep. AFWL-TR-65-147 (Air Force Weapons Laboratory), 1965Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahrens, T.J.: Equation of state. In: Asay, J.R., Shahinpoor, M. (eds.) High Pressure Shock Compression of Solids, pp. 75–114. Springer, New York (1993.) Chap. 4)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonnan, S., Hereil, P.-L., Collombet, F.: Experimental characterization of quasi static and shock wave behavior of porous aluminum. J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 5741–5749 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kraus, R.G., Chapman, D.J., Proud, W.G., Swift, D.C.: Hugoniot and spall strength measurements of porous aluminum. J. Appl. Phys. 105, 114914 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gourdin, W.H.: Dynamic consolidation of metal powders. Prog. Mater. Sci. 30, 39–80 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eakins, D.E., Thadhani, N.N.: Shock compression of reactive powder mixtures. Int. Mater. Rev. 54(4), 181–213 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Perry, J.I., Braithwaite, C.H., Taylor, N.E., Jardine, A.P.: Behavior of moist and saturated sand during shock and release. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 174102 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sheffield, S.A., Gustavsen, R.L., Anderson, M.U.: Shock loading of porous high explosives. In: Davison, L., Horie, Y., Shahinpoor, M. (eds.) High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids IV: Response of Highly Porous Solids to Shock Loading, pp. 23–62. Springer, New York (1997.), Chap. 2)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stöfller, D., Gault, D.E., Wedekind, J., Polkowski, G.: Experimental hypervelocity impact into quartz sand: distribution and shock metamorphism of ejecta. J. Geophys. Res. 80(29), 4062–4077 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A., Voss, M.E.: Compaction as the origin of the unusual craters in the asteroid Mathilde. Nature. 402, 155–157 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jensen, B.J., et al.: Ultrafast, high resolution, phase contrast imaging of impact response with synchrotron radiation. AIP Adv. 2, 012170 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luo, S.N., et al.: Gas gun shock experiments with single-pulse x-ray phase contrast imaging and diffraction at the advanced photon source. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 073903 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jensen, B.J., et al.: Impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 013904 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jensen, B.J., et al.: Dynamic experiment using IMPULSE at the advanced photon source. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 500, 042001 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jensen, B.J., et al.: X-ray phase contrast imaging of granular systems, submitted to Springer (LA-UR-17-27104)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McGlaun, J.M., Thompson, S.L., Elrick, M.G.: CTH: a three-dimensional shock wave physics code. Int. J. Impact Eng. 10(1), 351–360 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hermann, W.: Constitutive equation for the dynamic compaction of ductile porous materials. J. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 2490–2499 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Paganin, D., et al.: Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object. J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Mandal
    • 1
  • M. Hudspeth
    • 2
  • B. J. Jensen
    • 1
  • S. Root
    • 2
  1. 1.Shock and Detonation Physics Group, Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  2. 2.Dynamic Material Properties, Sandia National LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations