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Extraction 2018 pp 1073-1082 | Cite as

Behavior of Nickel as a Trace Element and Time-Dependent Formation of Spinels in WEEE Smelting

  • Lassi KlemettinenEmail author
  • Katri Avarmaa
  • Pekka Taskinen
  • Ari Jokilaakso
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

For better understanding and maximal value utilization of the WEEE smelting process, the behavior and distribution of different trace elements must be known. In this study, the behavior of nickel as a trace element was studied in an equilibrium system with metallic copper—spinel saturated iron silicate slag (with 3 wt-% K2O)—iron aluminous spinel—gas. The experiments were conducted in alumina crucibles at 1300 °C, in oxygen pressure range of 10−10–10−5 atm. A time series of 15–60 min experiments was also conducted for investigating the formation rate of the primary spinel phase in the system. The results show that the distribution coefficient of nickel between metallic copper and liquid slag changes from approximately 70 to 0.4 along the increasing oxygen pressure range. In addition, a significant part of the nickel deports into the spinel phase. The spinel formation was investigated based on composition analysis results and visual observations from SEM-images.

Keywords

Distribution Slag Potassium oxide Copper smelting 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The scholarship from the Finnish Steel and Metal Producer’s Fund (LK) has enabled this work. The assistance of Mr. Lassi Pakkanen at Geological Survey of Finland regarding the EPMA analyses is greatly appreciated.

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lassi Klemettinen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katri Avarmaa
    • 1
  • Pekka Taskinen
    • 1
  • Ari Jokilaakso
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringAalto UniversityEspooFinland

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