Advertisement

How Food Secure Are South Africa’s Cities?

  • Jane Battersby
  • Gareth HaysomEmail author
Chapter
Part of the World Regional Geography Book Series book series (WRGBS)

Abstract

Food insecurity in South Africa remains a persistent challenge. Traditionally, food insecurity has been seen as affecting rural areas only, and this perspective had previously informed, and is still informing, policy and food security responses. South Africa is over 60% urbanised and yet policies and mandates regarding food security do not reflect this shift. This chapter seeks to answer the question ‘how food secure are South Africa’s cities?’, describing the state of food insecurity in South Africa’s cities, but also highlighting the specific nature of urban food insecurity. The chapter argues that food insecurity is the result of poorly framed and mandated policies, that food insecurity is driven by changes in the food system, and that spatial and structural issues also drive food insecurity. These challenges are reinforced in cities where the food insecure rely on the market as a means to ensure food availability. South Africa’s cities are food insecure and will remain so within the current market and governance regimes.

Keywords

Food security policy Food systems Informal food economy Nutrition Urban food systems 

References

  1. Altman M, Hart TGB, Jacobs PT (2009) Household food security status in South Africa. Agrekon 48(4):345–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballantine N, Rousseau GG, Venter DJL (2008) Purchasing behaviour as a determinant of food insecurity in Klipplaat. J Fam Ecol Consum Sci 36:1–8Google Scholar
  3. Battersby J (2011) The state of urban food insecurity in Cape Town, Urban Food Security Series No 11. Queen’s University and AFSUN, Kingston, 42ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Battersby J (2012a) Urban food security and the urban food policy gap. Paper presented at Towards Carnegie III Conference, University of Cape Town, 3–7 September 2012Google Scholar
  5. Battersby J (2012b) Beyond the food desert: finding ways to speak about urban food security in South Africa. Geogr Ann Ser B Hum Geogr 94(2):141–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battersby J, Peyton S (2014) The geography of supermarkets in Cape Town: supermarket expansion and food access. Urban Forum 25(2):153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Battersby J, Marshak M, Mngqibisa N (2016) Mapping the invisible: the informal food economy of Cape Town, South Africa, Urban Food Security Series No 24. African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN), Cape Town, 46ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaumont J, Lang T, Leather S, Mucklow C (1995) Report from the policy sub-group to the nutrition taskforce: low-income project team. Institute of Grocery Distribution, WatfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Bienabe E, Vermeulen H (2007) New trends in supermarkets procurement system in South Africa: the case of local procurement schemes from small-scale farmers by rural-based retail chain stores. Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, Pretoria, 21ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Bikombo BG (2015) Understanding household food insecurity and coping strategies of street traders in Durban. Unpublished masters thesis, Department of Human Ecology, University of South Africa, 121ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Coates J, Swindale A, Bilinsky P (2007) Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of food access: indicator guide. USAid, Washington, DC, 34ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooke K (2012) Urban food access: a study of the lived experience of food access within a low income community in Cape Town. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Cape Town, 175ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Crush J, Tawodzera G (2012) Household food security among Zimbabwean migrant households in Cape Town and Johannesburg. African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN), Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  14. Department of Agriculture (DOA) (2002) Integrated food security strategy for South Africa. Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, 47ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Department of Basic Education (DOE) (2013) Case study of the national school nutrition programme in South Africa. Department of Basic Education, Pretoria, 107ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Department of Health (DOH) (2002) Integrated nutrition programme strategic plan 2002/03 to 2006/07. Department of Health, Pretoria, 54ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Department of Health (DOH) (2017) South Africa demographic and health survey, 2016: key indicators report. Department of Health, Pretoria, 76ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Drimie S, Ruysenaar S (2010) The integrated food security strategy of South Africa: an institutional analysis. Agrekon 49(3):316–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duncan S (2013) Food security in a post-fire disaster context: experiences of female-headed households in an informal settlement. Unpublished Honours Project, Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  20. Ericksen PJ (2008) Conceptualizing food systems for global environmental change research. Glob Environ Chang 18:234–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Even-Zahav E, Kelly C (2016) Systematic review of the literature on ‘informal economy’ and ‘food security’: South Africa, 2009–2014, Working Paper 35. PLAAS/UWC and Centre of Excellence on Food Security, Cape Town, 31ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) (1996) Rome declaration on world food security. Available at http://www.fao.org/WFS/. Accessed 19 Jan 2014
  23. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), IFAD, UNICEF, WFP & WHO (2017) The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2017. FAO, Rome, 132ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) (2012) Republic of South Africa. Retail food sector. Retail sector grows despite downturn. USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. Greenberg S (2010) Contesting the food system in South Africa: issues and opportunities. Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, Research Report, Cape Town, p 42, 37ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Grobler WCJ (2013) Food security and social grant recipients in a low income neighbourhood in South Africa. In: Proceedings of world business and social science research conference, 24–25 October 2013, Novotel Bangkok on Siam Square, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  27. Haysom G (2017) Climate change, food and the city: agency and urban scale food system networks. In: Thomas-Hope E (ed) Climate change and food security: Africa and the Caribbean. Routledge, London, pp 145–155Google Scholar
  28. Haysom G, Battersby J (2016) Why urban agriculture isn’t a panacea for Africa’s food crisis. The Conversation. Available at https://theconversation.com/why-urban-agriculture-isnt-a-panacea-for-africas-food-crisis-57680. Accessed 5 Sept 2017
  29. Joubert L, Miller E (2012) The hungry season: feeding southern Africa’s cities. Picador Africa, Johannesburg, 344ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirsten J, Van Zyl J (1996) The contemporary agriculture policy environment: undoing the legacy of the past. In: van Zyl J, Kirsten J, Binswanger HP (eds) Agricultural land reform in south Africa. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, pp 199–235Google Scholar
  31. Labadarios D, Mchiza ZJ-R, Steyn NP, Gericke G, Maunder EMW, David YD, Parker W (2011) Food security in South Africa: a review of national surveys. Bull World Health Organ 89:891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Louw A, Chikazunga D, Jordaan D, Bienabe E (2007) Restructuring food markets in South Africa: dynamics within the context of the tomato subsector, Agrifood Sector report. IIED, London, 79ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Maxwell D (1999) Urban food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Koc M, MacRae R, Mougeot L, Welsh J (eds) For hunger-proof cities: sustainable urban food systems. IDRC, Ottawa, pp 26–37Google Scholar
  34. May J, Rogerson CM (1995) Poverty and sustainable cities in South Africa: the role of urban cultivation. Habitat Int 19(2):165–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. National Planning Commission (2013) National development plan 2030. Our future – make it work. Executive summary. National Planning Commission, Pretoria, 489ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Ndobo F, Sekhampu TJ (2013) Determinants of vulnerability to food insecurity in an African township: a gender analysis. Mediterr J Soc Sci 4(14):311–317Google Scholar
  37. Oldewage-Theron WH, Dicks EG, Napier CE (2006) Poverty, household food insecurity and nutrition: coping strategies in an informal settlement in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa. Public Health 120(9):795–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pietermaritzburg Agency for Community Social Action (PACSA) (2017) PACSA monthly food price barometer: AUGUST 2017. PASCA, Pietermaritzburg, 8ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Reardon T, Timmer PC, Berdegúe JA (2004) The rapid rise of supermarkets in developing countries: induced organizational, institutional, and technological change in agrifood systems. J Agric Dev Econ 1(2):168–183Google Scholar
  40. Republic of South Africa (RSA) (1996) Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. Government of South Africa, Pretoria, 182ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Republic of South Africa (RSA) (2010) Measureable performance and accountable delivery. Outcome 7: vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural communities and food security for all (draft). Government of South Africa, Pretoria, 4ppGoogle Scholar
  42. Republic of South Africa (RSA) (2014) The national policy on food and nutrition security for the Republic of South Africa, Government Gazette No. 37915. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria 22 August 2014Google Scholar
  43. Roberts W (2001) The way to a city’s heart is through its stomach: putting food security on the urban planning menu. Crackerbarrel Philosophy Series, Toronto Food Policy Council, Toronto, 59ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Rogerson CM (2010) Resetting the policy agenda for urban agriculture in South Africa. J Publ Admin 45(2):373–383Google Scholar
  45. Rudolph M, Kroll F, Ruysenaar S, Dhlamini T (2012) The state of food insecurity in Johannesburg, Urban Food Security Series No 12. University of Cape Town/AFSUN, Kingston, 38ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Ruysenaar S (2013) Reconsidering the ‘Letsema Principle’ and the role of community gardens in food security: evidence from Gauteng, South Africa. Urban Forum 24(2):219–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Savy M, Martin-Prével Y, Sawadogo P, Kameli Y, Delpeuch F (2005) Use of variety/diversity scores for diet quality measurement: relation with nutritional status of women in a rural area in Burkina Faso. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:703–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shisana O, Labadarios D, Rehle T, Simbayi L, Zuma K, Dhansay A, Reddy P, Parker W, Hoosain E, Hongoro C, Mchiza Z, Steyn NP, Dwane N, Makoae M, Maluleke T, Ramlagan S, Zungu N, Evans MG, Jacobs L, Faber M, SANHANES-1 Team (2013) The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, SANHANES-1. HSRC Press, Cape Town, 423ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Skinner C, Haysom G (2016) The informal sector’s role in food security: a missing link in policy debates? Working Paper 44, PLAAS/UWC, Cape Town, 25ppGoogle Scholar
  50. South African Cities Network (SACN) (2015) A study of current and future realities for urban food security in South Africa, Sustainable Cities Report. SACN, Braamfontein, 85ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Swindale A, Bilinsky P (2006) Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access: indicator guide. Version 2. FANTA, Washington, DC, 15ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Thornton A (2008) Beyond the metropolis: small town case studies of urban and peri-urban agriculture in South Africa. Urban Forum 19(3):243–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van Averbeke W (2007) Urban farming in the informal settlements of Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa. Water SA 33(3):337–342Google Scholar
  54. Vearey J, Núñez L, Palmary I (2009) HIV, migration and urban food security: exploring the linkages. University of the Witwatersrand, Forced Migration Studies Programme, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  55. Webb NL (1996) Urban agriculture: advocacy and practice. A discursive study with particular reference to three Eastern Cape centres. PhD thesis, Rhodes UniversityGoogle Scholar
  56. Webb NL (2000) Food-gardens and nutrition: three Southern African case studies. J Fam Ecol Consum Sci 28(1):62–67Google Scholar
  57. World Bank (2017) Urban population (% of total). Available at https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?locations=ZA. Accessed 5 Sept 2017
  58. Wrigley N (2002) Food deserts in British cities: policy context and research priorities. Urban Stud 39(11):2029–2040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zager K (2011) Commutes, constraints, and food: the geography of choice. Unpublished Honours Dissertation, University of Cape Town, Cape TownGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations